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Table 2 Treatment impact on secondary outcome variables based on anxiety disorder comorbidity

From: Bipolar disorder with comorbid anxiety disorders: impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoeducation

  No anxiety disorder Comorbid anxiety disorder Time effect Anxiety disorder effect Time × anxiety disorder interaction
  Baseline 18 months Baseline 18 months       
  M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) F p F p F p
GAF 67.03 (10.76) 72.07 (14.26) 61.73 (10.50) 69.32 (13.43) 25.54 <0.001 7.42 0.007 0.53 0.47
SAS-Social 2.36 (1.16) 2.15 (0.83) 2.94 (1.41) 2.49 (1.25) 8.05 0.005 10.95 0.001 1.07 0.30
SAS-Overall 2.50 (0.88) 2.36 (0.82) 2.82 (0.81) 2.58 (0.73) 5.96 0.016 6.71 0.01 0.39 0.54
Compliance 1.46 (0.57) 1.66 (0.77) 1.36 (0.53) 1.51 (0.87) 6.74 0.011 1.74 0.19 0.11 0.74
DAS 130.17 (35.22) 113.57 (33.81) 140.27 (38.41) 124.57 (34.72) 31.09 <0.001 4.76 0.03 0.003 0.96
CIPM           
 Stimulation reduction 1.92 (0.57) 2.18 (0.63) 1.95 (0.55) 2.25 (0.57) 20.99 <0.001 0.47 0.49 0.25 0.62
 Seek professional help 2.17 (0.86) 2.28 (0.73) 2.15 (0.82) 2.20 (0.82) 0.39 0.53 0.36 0.55 0.06 0.81
 Problem-directed coping 2.17 (0.60) 2.47 (0.64) 2.11 (0.59) 2.44 (0.52) 29.25 <0.001 0.18 0.67 0.21 0.65
 Denial/blame 2.21 (0.51) 1.98 (0.50) 2.12 (0.54) 1.91 (0.46) 15.20 0.001 1.90 0.17 0.02 0.90
  1. Significant effects are italicized. CIPM Coping Inventory for the Prodromes of Mania, DAS Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, GAF Global Assessment of Functioning, SAS- Overall Social Adjustment Scale-Global Overall Functioning, SAS-Social Social Adjustment Scale-Global Social Functioning.