Skip to main content

Table 3 Clinical characteristics of the sample

From: Sleep quality during euthymia in bipolar disorder: the role of clinical features, personality traits, and stressful life events

Clinical characteristic by domain HC BD p value a p value adjusted b
(n = 136) (n = 119)
Medical, substance use disorder, and anxiety disorder comorbidities, n (%)     
 Cardiovascular disease 8 (6) 24 (21) 1 × 10−3 .08
 Diabetes 2 (2) 11 (9) 5 × 10−3 .25
 Migraine 9 (7) 27 (23) <1 × 10−3 5 × 10−3
 Alcohol use disorders - 43 (36) - -
 Drug use disorders - 20 (17) - -
 Anxiety disorder - 24 (20) - -
Features of BD, n (%)     
 Mixed episodes - 25 (23) - -
 Rapid cycling - 34 (29) - -
 Suicide attempts - 39 (33) - -
 Mixed symptoms - 38 (36) - -
 Psychosis - 68 (59) - -
Severity/symptom measures, mean (SD)     
 Age at onset (years) - 19.2 (8.3) - -
 Depression (number of episodes) - 5 (8) - -
 Mania (number of episodes) - 2 (3) - -
 Hypomania (number of episodes) - 3 (20) - -
 Current symptom state     
  HDRS 17 0.57 (1.32) 2.06 (1.99) <1 × 10−3 <1 × 10−3
  HDRS 21 with atypical symptoms 0.76 (1.61) 3.93 (4.39) <1 × 10−3 <1 × 10−3
  YMRS 0.13 (0.63) 1.21 (1.84) <1 × 10−3 <1 × 10−3
Chronotype, sleep, and sleepiness, mean (SD)     
 PSQI total score 3.82 (2.7) 6.45 (3.41) <1 × 10−3 <1 × 10−3
 Sleep quality 0.37 (0.53) 1.03 (1.00) <1 × 10−3 <1 × 10−3
 Sleep latency 0.74 (0.75) 1.08 (0.98) 3 × 10−3 .01
 Sleep duration 1.00 (1.09) 0.84 (1.07) .24 .19
 Sleep efficiency 0.30 (0.72) 0.43 (0.79) .18 .42
 Sleep disturbance 0.50 (0.74) 1.13 (1.02) <1 × 10−3 <1 × 10−3
 Sleep medication 0.70 (0.59) 0.99 (0.73) <1 × 10−3 4 × 10−3
 Daytime dysfunction 0.21 (0.46) 0.94 (0.91) <1 × 10−3 <1 × 10−3
 ESS sleepiness 5.38 (3.27) 6.58 (4.18) .01 .01
 MCTQ 3.20 (1.63) 3.03 (1.90) .46 .40
Dimensional/personality traits, mean (SD)     
 NEO-PI neuroticism 44.99 (9.18) 58.38 (13.24) <1 × 10−3 <1 × 10−3
 NEO-PI extraversion 52.78 (8.63) 50.26 (10.55) .04 .49
 NEO-PI openness 56.59 (10.71) 59.26 (12.07) .06 7 × 10−3
 NEO-PI agreeableness 49.75 (10.68) 50.44 (12.51) .63 .81
 NEO-PI conscientiousness 49.20 (10.61) 43.58 (13.27) <1 × 10−3 1 × 10−3
Life story/trauma, mean (SD)     
 CTQ childhood trauma 34.27 (8.11) 46.60 (17.34) <1 × 10−3 <1 × 10−3
 LEOS undesirable events 0.85 (1.43) 1.63 (2.17) 1 × 10−3 3 × 10−3
 LEC stressful life events 4.90 (3.77) 4.56 (3.31) .44 .74
 FACES-II cohesion 62.02 (9.39) 55.67 (13.79) <1 × 10−3 <1 × 10−3
 FACES-II adaptability 46.63 (7.75) 43.54 (10.85) .01 .03
 MRCIR social support 42.70 (6.82) 39.78 (8.90) <4 × 10−3 .12
 MRCIR undermining 11.02 (3.64) 13.07 (4.96) <1 × 10−3 2 × 10−3
Behavioral, median (IQR)     
 Current use     
  AUDIT alcoholc 0 (4) 3 (5) .28  
  AUDIT drugsc 0 (0) 0 (0) .02  
  FTND nicotine dependencec 0 (0) 0 (0) .04  
  1. DIGS Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, HDRS Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, YMRS Young Mania Rating Scale, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, ESS Epworth Sleepiness Scale, MCTQ Munich Chronotype Questionnaire, NEO-PI-R NEO-Personality Index - Revised, CTQ Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, LEOS Life Events Occurrence Survey, LEC Life Events Checklist, FACES II Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale II, MRCIR Measures Related to Close Interpersonal Relationships Support and Undermining Scale, AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, FTND Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. a p values from comparisons of continuous variables made using independent t tests except for AUDIT alcohol, AUDIT drugs, and FTND nicotine dependence, and p values from comparisons of categorical variables made using chi-square tests; b p values from linear regressions including the score of the scale of interest as a dependent variable, with age, sex, BMI, employment/student status, marital status, and euthymic BD/HC group as independent variables; ccomparisons between HC and BD are made with Mann–Whitney U tests.