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Table 2 Questionnaire scores for individuals with the probable bipolar or threshold bipolar syndrome and controls

From: The common bipolar phenotype in young people

  Probable bipolar (N= 106) Threshold bipolar (N= 459) Controls (N= 637) Significance
EPQ-N, mean (s.d.) 9.4 (3.5) 8.1 (3.5) 5.3 (3.3) F = 124.772, p < 0.001; η2 = 0.172
GHQ-12 caseness (≥3) (%) 77 58 47 LR = 41.807, p < 0.001; ϕ = 0.183
Current PHQ ≥ 15a (%) 33 10 4 LR = 53.477, p < 0.001; ϕ = 0.279
Past PHQ ≥ 15a (%) 54 21 9 LR = 88.999, p < 0.001; ϕ = 0.336
CAGE ≥ 2 (%) 34 22 6 LR = 90.137, p < 0.001; ϕ = 0.274
Gambles several times a monthb (%) 6 7 3 LR = 7.010, p = 0.030; ϕ = 0.105
Gambles onlineb (%) 13 8 2 LR = 16.574, p < 0.001; ϕ = 0.165
Health problems (%) 28 14 8 LR = 31.158, p < 0.001; ϕ = 0.174
Medicationsa (%) 6 2 0.4 LR = 13.197, p = 0.001; ϕ = 0.183
  1. s.d., standard deviation; LR, likelihood ratio; df = 2, 1199 for EPQ-N or df = 2 for other variables. aProbable bipolar group: total N = 80; threshold bipolar group: total N = 345; controls: total N = 499. bProbable bipolar group: total N = 53; threshold bipolar group: total N = 236; controls: total N = 347.