Effect of Kindling on ethanol consumption. Depicts the increased ethanol consumption in kindled LH, NAC, and ILC rats during mania-induction compared to baseline intervals (*P = 0.026) (A). The significant increase in ethanol consumption remained during the post-mania interval only in the LHK group (baseline vs. post-mania LHK (t = 2.66, P < 0.05), NAC (t = 0.44, P > 0.05), and ILC (t = 0.536, P > 0.05). Neither lithium nor VPA attenuated LHK-induced increase in ethanol consumption (P = 0.12) (B) by two-way ANOVA; *P < 0.05 by post hoc test; n = 10 to 12 per group. Data is expressed as mean ± SEM.