Skip to main content
Figure 5 | International Journal of Bipolar Disorders

Figure 5

From: Lateral hypothalamic kindling induces manic-like behavior in rats: a novel animal model

Figure 5

Impact of 15-day treatment with saline, VPA and lithium. On kindling-induced changes in total locomotor activity and rest intervals during light and dark phases. Comparing baseline with mania-induction during light phase (A) shows a significant increase in total activity counts only in saline (*P = 0.011), but not in VPA (P > 0.05), or lithium-treated (P > 0.05) groups with an interaction (*P = 0.01), while a significant reduction in activity counts during the post-kindling interval was seen in both VPA (*P = 0.038), and lithium-treated (*P = 0.019) animals but not in saline-treated rats (P > 0.05) by two-way ANOVA; *P < 0.05 by post hoc test; n = 10 to 12 per group. Data is expressed as mean ± SEM. Contrary to saline-treated rats, VPA and lithium prevented the kindling-induced increase in activity counts during dark phase (B). Interaction (P = 0.0001), baseline vs. mania-induction in saline-treated group (*P < 0.001), VPA-treated (P > 0.05), and lithium-treated (P > 0.05) rats by two-way ANOVA; *P < 0.05 by post hoc test; n = 10 to 12 per group. Data is expressed as mean ± SEM. A significant reduction in rest interval observed during the post-kindling compared to pre-kindling days in both light (C) and dark (D) phases only in saline-treated rats (*P < 0.001), but not in the VPA (P > 0.05) or the lithium-treated (P > 0.05) groups. Comparing baseline vs. post-mania rest intervals during dark phase shows that saline-treated group had significant reduction (*P < 0.001) in rest interval that was abolished in both VPA (P > 0.05) and lithium-treated (P > 0.05) groups by two-way ANOVA; *P < 0.05 by post hoc test; n = 10 to 12 per group. Data is expressed as mean ± SEM.

Back to article page