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Table 1 Characteristics of children and adolescents with a first diagnosis of mania or bipolar affective disorder (index diagnosis)

From: Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing? Results from a nationwide register study

  1995–2003 2004–2012 Pvalue
N = 346 (%) 111 (32.1) 235 (67.9)  
Sex (%)    
 Boys 46.8 41.7 0.4
 Girls 53.2 58.3  
Age at index diagnosis, median (quartiles) 17.2 (16.2–18.3) 17.4 (16.1–18.2) 0.8
Contact number at index diagnosis, median (quartiles) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4) 0.9
Duration from first psychiatric contact to first diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder (years) 0.09 0.29 0.1
(0–1.03) (0–1.35)  
Bipolar index diagnosis (%)    
 Single manic/mixed episode 40.5 25.5 0.005
 Bipolar disorder 59.5 74.5  
Bipolar index diagnosis (%)    
 Remission, other, unspecified 10.8 23.9  
 Depressive 7.2 14.1  
 Manic (including single manic episode) 70.3 48.3 0.0009
 Mixed (including single mixed episode) 11.7 13.7  
Auxiliary diagnosis (%)    
 No auxiliary diagnosis 84.7 66.0 0.0003
 Psychiatric 11.7 21.7 0.03
 Substance abuse 0.9 3.0 0.23
 Somatic 8.1 17.0 0.03
Type of auxiliary psychiatric diagnoses (%)    
 F4 15.4 27.5  
 F5 0 2.0 0.77
 F6 15.4 11.8  
 F7–9 69.2 58.8  
Rate of drug treatment per person year after index diagnosis and before <19 years of age    
 Lithium 3.6 1.1 <0.0001
 Antipsychotics 3.6 5.3 <0.0001
 Antiepileptics 1.7 2.7 <0.0001
 Antidepressants 1.2 1.5 0.0125
Incidence rate per person year of first drug after index diagnosis and before <19 years of age    
 Lithium 0.4 0.1 <0.0001
 Antipsychotics 0.6 1.6 <0.0001
 Antiepileptics 0.3 0.4 <0.0001
 Antidepressants 0.2 0.3 0.389
  1. According to calendar periods 1995–2003 versus 2004–2012.