Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographics, illness characteristics, current mood symptoms, and current medications in bipolar II disorder versus bipolar I disorder outpatients

From: American tertiary clinic-referred bipolar II disorder versus bipolar I disorder associated with hastened depressive recurrence

  Recovered bipolar II Recovered bipolar I Depressed bipolar II Depressed bipolar I
N (%) 39.0* (41) 61.0 (64) 61.4** (94) 38.6 (59)
Demographics
A. Age (years, mean ± SD) 36.5 ± 13.8 35.8 ± 13.7 36.5 ± 13.5 35.9 ± 13.5
B. Female (%) 69.0 48.4 63.8 57.6
C. Caucasian (%) 75.0 77.4 87.2 86.4
D. College degree (%) 66.7 60.3 51.1 40.7
E. Married (current, %) 34.1 38.1 41.5 30.5
F. Full-time employment (current, %) 35.0 33.3 25.8 25.4
Comorbid disorders (lifetime, %)
1. Anxiety 61.0* 37.5 81.9 69.5
2. Alcohol/substance use 51.2 50.0 58.5 57.6
3. Eating 14.6 6.3 18.1 6.8
4. Personality 7.3 9.4 19.1* 6.8
Other illness characteristics
5. Bipolar II disorder (%) 100.0**** 0.0 100.0**** 0.0
5A. Psychosis (lifetime, %) 12.2 68.8**** 18.1 64.4****
5B. Psychiatric Hospitalization (lifetime, %) 9.8 70.3**** 6.4 57.6****
6. ≥One 1° relative with mood disorder (%) 53.7 42.2 61.7 55.9
7. Onset age (years, mean ± SD) 18.4 ± 9.0 20.1 ± 8.8 16.2 ± 8.7 18.5 ± 5.8
8. Childhood (age <13 years) Onset (%) 20.0 9.4 31.9*** 8.5
9. Illness duration (years, mean ± SD) 18.9 ± 15.4 16.4 ± 12.6 19.6 ± 13.5 17.3 ± 12.5
10. Long illness duration (≥15 years, %) 50.0 46.6 54.8 50.8
11. Episode accumulation (≥10, lifetime, %) 63.9 42.9 81.6** 56.4
12. Suicide attempt (lifetime, %) 30.8 23.8 31.2 39.0
13. Rapid cycling (prior year, %) 15.4 6.7 34.4 20.7
14. CGI-BP-OS (current, mean ± SD) 2.4 ± 0.7** 2.0 ± 0.8 5.4 ± 0.8 5.93 ± 0.7
Current mood symptoms (any in prior 10 days, %)
15. Sadness 31.7* 10.9 91.5 86.4
16. Anhedonia 22.4* 7.8 95.7 93.2
17. Euphoria 17.1 10.9 35.1* 16.9
18. Irritability 53.7** 25.0 77.7** 54.2
19. Anxiety 46.3 29.7 85.1 74.6
Medication (current)
20. Mood stabilizer (MS, %) 75.6 77.8 51.1** 75.9
21. Antipsychotic (AP, %) 31.7 40.6 20.2**** 55.9
22. Antidepressant (AD, %) 46.3* 25.0 48.9 37.3
23. Anxiolytic/hypnotic (AN, %) 24.4 23.4 31.9 40.7
24. Complex pharmacotherapy (>4 MS, AP, or AD, %) 24.4 15.6 24.5 35.6
25. Number of psychotropics (MS, AP, AD, mean ± SD) 2.6 ± 1.6 2.3 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1.8* 2.8 ± 1.7
  1. Underline indicates parameters with statistically significant relationships with bipolar subtype; CGI-BP-OS indicates clinical global impression for bipolar disorder-overall severity; italic font indicates parameters associated with bipolar I disorder, independent of mood state; SD indicates standard deviation
  2. Missing data: recovered—≥10 prior episodes 12.4%, all other parameters 0.0–5.7%, depressed—≥10 prior episodes 7.2%, all other parameters 0.0–1.3%
  3. p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; **** p < 0.0001, bipolar II disorder versus bipolar I disorder