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Table 3 Feasibility and clinical outcome measures with treatment differences at 3 months, group mean differences and standardized effect size (standardized by the outcome score standard deviation)

From: Pilot study of a culturally adapted psychoeducation (CaPE) intervention for bipolar disorder in Pakistan

   Baseline 3 months Change Adjusted mean difference†
(95% CI)#
Standardized effect size Test statistic and p value
n mean (sd) n mean (sd) n mean (sd)
Patient Satisfaction TAU 16 17.6 (3.3) 11 13.2 (1.9) 11 −3.7 (4.3) 4.00
(2.28, 5.28)
1.41 z = 5.30
p < 0.001
  CaPE 18 15.8 (2.4) 16 16.6 (3.0) 16 1.4 (2.9)
BKAQ score TAU 16 1247 (129) 11 1188 (257) 11 −54 (271) 150
(−52, 322)
0.68 z = 1.58
p = 0.113
  CaPE 18 1325 (201) 16 1358 (164) 16 34 (231)
MMAS-4 score TAU 16 1.3 (1.7) 11 2.1 (1.5) 11 0.7 (1.8) −1.22
(−2.18, −0.14)
−0.81 z = 2.37
p = 0.018
  CaPE 18 1.7 (1.7) 16 0.9 (1.4) 16 −0.5 (1.8)
YMRS TAU 16 6.5 (1.2) 11 10.0 (3.9) 11 3.4 (3.4) −6.0
(−8.7, 3.7)
−1.18 z = 4.67
p < 0.001
  CaPE 18 7.2 (1.5) 16 5.1 (5.0) 16 −1.9 (4.2)
BDI TAU 16 17.8 (11.5) 11 19.6 (8.6) 11 1.3 (13.6) −10.3
(−16.8, −4.5)
−1.17 z = 3.21
p = 0.001
  CaPE 18 17.1 (5.3) 16 9.5 (6.3) 16 −7.1 (9.1)
EQ-5D Index (UK) TAU 16 7.6 (2.1) 11 8.3 (1.8) 11 −0.1 (0.4) 0.24
(0.10, 0.50)
0.88 z = 2.47
p = 0.014
  CaPE 18 7.4 (1.8) 16 6.4 (1.3) 16 0.07 (0.19)
EQ-5D VAS TAU 16 60.6 (24.0) 11 48.6 (18.2) 11 −9.5 (29.6_ 26.8
(12.2, 41.8)
1.14 z = 3.65
p < 0.001
  CaPE 18 56.8 (26.7) 16 75.6 (20.6) 16 16.7 (29.6)
  1. BKAQ Bipolar Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire, MMAS-4 measure of medication adherence, YMRS Young Mania Rating Scale, BDI Beck’s Depression Inventory, EQ-5D EuroQol-5 dimensions; Index and Visual Analogue Scale