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Table 2 Participants and factors related to physical restraints at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, 2015

From: Use of physical restraints among patients with bipolar disorder in Ethiopian Mental Specialized Hospital, outpatient department: cross-sectional study

Variable Frequency Percentage (%)
History of aggression
 Yes 323 80.8
 No 77 19.2
Number of episode
 First episode 115 28.8
 Second episode 128 32.0
 Third episode 53 13.2
 Fourth episode 22 5.5
 More than four episode 82 20.5
Type of current medication
 Mood stabilizer 238 59.5
 Antidepressant 57 14.5
 Antipsychotic 269 65.5
 Antipsychotic and mood stabilizer (combination) 181 44.0
Drug adherence
 Poor adherence 140 35
 Moderate adherence 129 32.2
 High adherence 131 32.8
Perceived stress
 Low perceived stress 116 29.0
 Average perceived stress 78 19.5
 High perceived stress 206 51.5
Social support
 Poor social support 138 34.5
 Moderate social support 178 44.5
 Strong social support 84 21.0
Duration of morbidity
 Less than 1 year 20 5
 1–5 years 168 42
 More than 5 years 212 53
Current use of substance
 Alcohol 108 27.3
 Khat 123 30.8
 Smoking 74 18.5