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Table 2 Neuropsychological tests’ scores from bipolar patients with MPP, DPP, and IPP specifiers, and HC

From: Cognitive impairments and predominant polarity in bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional study

Neuropsychological tests MPP
(n = 17)
DPP
(n = 22)
IPP
(n = 16)
HC
(n = 31)
p value
Memory for scenes
 Immediate recall 32.38 (11.17) 35.45 (11.10) 30.13 (11.65) 37.65 (10.99) 0.104
 Latent recall 30.25 (11.41) 34.50 (12.31) 30.50 (12.13) 37.06 (12.28) 0.138
List of words
 List A 27.00 (5.83)a 29.36 (6.79) 27.25 (6.99)a 32.26 (5.58) 0.014
 List B 5.81 (2.45)a 7.05 (2.28) 5.50 (2.42)a 8.00 (2.50) 0.002
 Number of trials 4.19 (1.04) 4.59 (1.59) 3.88 (1.50) 4.90 (1.60) 0.135
Logical Memory I and II
 Immediate recall 20.69 (5.91) 22.45 (6.83) 22.75 (5.89) 23.48 (7.47) 0.766
 Total recall 32.63 (9.80) 36.91 (10.47) 36.88 (9.08) 38.13 (11.24) 0.503
 Delayed Memory 16.94 (5.78)a,b 22.41 (7.72) 20.75 (6.28) 23.55 (8.52) 0.025
 Recognition Memory 23.94 (3.06) 24.45 (3.61) 24.19 (4.62) 24.45 (3.77) 0.766
Stroop Color–Word Test
 Stroop Test, Card 1 23.60 (34.36) 15.86 (3.88) 15.25 (4.02) 12.84 (2.69) 0.120
 Stroop Test, Card 2 23.67 (16.45) 19.50 (6.41) 18.31 (5.13) 16.45 (3.84) 0.073
 Stroop Test, Card 3 29.80 (7.89) 26.23 (9.211) 33.31 (11.31) 26.84 (8.92) 0.090
Trail Making Test
 Trail A 44.25 (21.03)a,c 35.05 (12.24) 33.25 (12.65) 32.13 (10.12) 0.011
 Trail B 102.60 (40.96) 82.14 (30.17) 95.69 (40.95) 78.71 (32.03) 0.080
 Errors trail A 0.07 (0.26) 0.09 (0.29) 0 (0) 0.13 (0.43) 0.689
 Errors trail B 0.80 (1.42) 0.50 (1.10) 0.75 (1.48) 0.97 (1.88) 0.971
 Verbal Fluency Test—FAS
 Verbal Fluency 28.25 (9.50)a,b 35.14 (7.65)a 30.88 (5.11)a 38.74 (7.52) <0.001
Rey complex figure
 Adequate representation 31.91 (4.39) 33.16 (3.19) 32.00 (3.52) 33.21 (2.92) 0.483
 Adequate planning 9.50 (7.14) 12.13 (5.77) 12.50 (10.28) 0.588
  1. Results expressed as mean (SD)—one-way ANCOVA
  2. MPP mania predominant polarity; DPP depressive predominant polarity; IPP indefinite predominant polarity; Control healthy subjects
  3. Post hoc: a compared to HC; b compared to DPP; c compared to IPP; p < 0.05
  4. The significance for the italic values are for p < 0.05