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Table 1 Clinical and demographic characteristics of the sample

From: 1H-NMR, 1H-NMR T2-edited, and 2D-NMR in bipolar disorder metabolic profiling

  Healthy controls (n = 50) BD (n = 26) Test
U or X 2 p value
Age in years; mean (SD) 35.69 (13.03) 40.38 (12.66) 187.000 0.261
Sex female; N(%) 17 (34) 17 (65) 5.114 0.023
Ethnicitycaucasian; N(%) 18 (36) 14 (53) 0.391 0.531
Years of education; mean (SD) 12.1 (3.8) 12.4 (3.6) 181.500 0.865
BMI in kg/m2; mean (SD) 26.2 (4.43) 28.06 (7.58) 170.500 0.507
Hours of physical exercise per week; mean (SD) 1.88 (2.44) 2 (2.93) 176.500 0.949
Current smoking; N(%) 3 (11.5) 4 (23.5) 1.084 0.297
Young mania rating scale; mean (SD) 0.5 (1.06) 0.7 (1.35) 208.500 0.661
Hamilton depression rating scale; mean (SD) 1.53 (1.96) 3.23 (3.84) 167.500 0.167
General functioning assessment (symptoms); mean (SD) 88.84 (6.97) 80 (10.15) 109.500 0.004
General functioning assessment (functioning); mean (SD) 87.69 (4.52) 75.88 (16.12) 127.000 0.011
Age at onset in years; mean (SD) 24.83 (9.83)
Duration of illness in years; mean (SD) 15.44 (12.69)
Number of total mood episodes; mean (SD) 9.05 (9.52)
Number of past manic episodes; mean (SD) 3.38 (3.82)
Number of past hypomanic episodes; mean (SD) 1.61 (4.11)
Number of past depressive episodes; mean (SD) 4.05 (5.47)
Number of past mixed episodes; mean (SD) 0 (0)
Age of diagnosis; mean (SD) 31.16 (11.11)
Age of first use of psychiatric medication; mean (SD) 26.55 (10.03)
Age of first use of mood stabilizer; mean (SD) 31.58 (11.78)