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Table 1 Reports on renal effects of lithium treatment

From: Long-term lithium treatment in bipolar disorder: effects on glomerular filtration rate and other metabolic parameters

Report Subjects (n) Age (years) Lithium exposure (years) Main findings
Li No Li
Hullin et al. (1979) 30 30 55 6.2 No difference in eGFR
Depaulo et al. (1981) 99 0 41 2.8 Creatinine increased with Li
Bendz (1985) 32 32 49 5.7 No difference in eGFR
Bendz et al. (1996) 13 13 59 18.0 eGFR fell with Li
Coşkunol et al. (1997) 107 29 39 4.5 No difference in eGFR
Turan et al. (2002) 10 10 35 1.3 and 6.7 eGFR fell with long-term Li
Bendz et al. (2010) 3369 Genl. pop. 65 23.0 ESRD 6.5-fold more often with Li
Rybakowski et al. (2012) 80 0 60 16.0 eGFR < 60: 22.5%; 2.4-times more in men
Bocchetta et al. (2013) 139 70 54 >1.0 eGFR < 60: 4.8-fold more often with Li
Minay et al. (2013) 330 659 48 eGFR < 60: similar with/without Li
Aiff et al. (2014) 1995 0 66 27.0 ESRD 7.8-fold more often with Li
Aprahamian et al. (2014) 32 27 74 4.0 No difference in renal function
Close et al. (2014) 2496 3864 49 eGFR < 60: 3.25-times less with Li
Aiff et al. (2015) 630 0 66 ≥10.0 eGFR < 60: 32%; ESRD: 4.5-fold more with Li
Bocchetta et al. (2015) 1953 0 10 and 25 eGFR < 50: 12% in 10, 50% in 25 yrs of Li
Clos et al. (2015) 305 815 43 4.6 No difference in eGFR
Shine et al. (2015) 4678 689,228 52 ≤28.0 eGFR < 60: 1.21-fold more often with Li
Castro et al. (2016) 3850 0 54 1.4 eGFR < 60: 25.7% lower with multiple doses/day
Hayes et al. (2016) 2148 4523 46 18 eGFR < 60: ~twofold higher HR with Li
Kessing et al. (2015) Natl. sample 0 Clinical CKD 3.6-times more with Li
N = 20 studies >22,296 >699,300 53.1 ± 10.5 10.9 ± 8.9 Function decreased in 15/20 reports (75.0%)
  1. Abnormal renal functioning was associated with longer exposure to lithium in these studies (15.3 ± 9.54 vs. 5.00 ± 0.91 years, respectively [t = 2.37, p = 0.035])