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Table 3 Metabolic parameters in lithium-treated bipolar disorder patients

From: Long-term lithium treatment in bipolar disorder: effects on glomerular filtration rate and other metabolic parameters

Exposure (years) N Lithium dose (mg/day) Serum [Li+] (mEq/L) BMI (kg/m2) Glucose (mg/dL) BUN (mg/dL) Creatinine (mg/dL) eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)
Baseline 312 797 ± 283 0.594 ± 0.201 25.9 ± 4.81 88.1 ± 14.3 23.7 ± 11.4 0.87 ± 0.19 94.2 ± 23.3
1 312 859 ± 282 0.638 ± 0.171 27.9 ± 5.87a 90.5 ± 16.3 22.1 ± 10.4 0.86 ± 0.17 94.8 ± 22.2
2–5 1561 877 ± 296a 0.658 ± 0.185 27.3 ± 5.10a 90.9 ± 17.9 23.8 ± 10.8 0.87 ± 0.17 91.2 ± 21.1
6–10 1490 875 ± 310a 0.656 ± 0.177 27.5 ± 5.15a 97.4 ± 28.6a 24.5 ± 11.2 0.90 ± 0.19 86.1 ± 20.1a
11–15 1080 858 ± 320 0.672 ± 0.188 27.0 ± 4.57 95.3 ± 24.0a 25.4 ± 11.7 0.91 ± 0.21 83.9 ± 20.2a
16–20 739 815 ± 305 0.671 ± 0.191 27.6 ± 4.71a 98.6 ± 28.4a 26.9 ± 14.1 0.93 ± 0.24a 78.8 ± 19.3a
21–30 760 716 ± 289a 0.651 ± 0.172 27.6 ± 4.30a 103.8 ± 33.5a 31.2 ± 15.7a 0.98 ± 0.29a 72.7 ± 20.1a
≥31 201 647 ± 334a 0.607 ± 0.168 26.6 ± 5.03 121.9 ± 54.9a 33.1 ± 15.8a 1.17 ± 0.48a 62.2 ± 22.9a
Means [95% CI] 312 subjects 833 ± 311 [824–842] 0.656 ± 0.184 [0.650–0.662] 27.0 ± 4.86 [26.5–27.5] 97.3 ± 28.4 [94.1–100.5] 26.1 ± 12.9 [24.7–27.5] 0.92 ± 0.24 [0.89–0.95] 83.3 ± 21.8 [80.9–85.7]
Change (%/year) 2669 assays –0.777 [–0.654 to –0.901] –0.005 [–0.118 to –0.118] +0.162 [0.011–0.311] +0.787 [0.619–0.954] +1.41 [1.10–1.72] +0.724 [0.609–0.839] –0.915 [–0.822 to –1.01]
p value [t-score] 2669 assays <0.0001 [12.4] 0.94 [0.077] 0.04 [2.11] <0.0001 [9.21] <0.0001 [8.91] <0.0001 [12.4] <0.0001 [19.1]
  1. Data are based on means of N measurements (of a total of 2669) for 312 subjects over stated exposures to lithium treatment
  2. Not shown are data for white blood cell counts (WBC), which did not change appreciably (initital: 7.29, final: 7.59 × 10–3 per µL)
  3. BMI (body-mass index [kg/m2]), BUN (blood urea nitrogen [mg/dL]), creatinine [mg/dL], eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate for creatinine [mL/min/1.73 m2]), glucose (not necessarily fasting [mg/dL]), WBC (white blood cell count [thousands/µL])
  4. aValues differ significantly from baseline measure, based on Tukey–Kramer post hoc tests comparing each exposure-interval to baseline values