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Table 4 Factors associated with vs. without low eGFR among 312 bipolar disorder subjects treated long-term with lithium

From: Long-term lithium treatment in bipolar disorder: effects on glomerular filtration rate and other metabolic parameters

Factor Low eGFRa Normal eGFR p-value [χ 2 or t-score]
Subjects 92 220
Sex (%)    0.003 [8.98]
 Women 36.1 63.9  
 Men 20.5 79.5  
Ages (years)
 Illness onset 31.8 [29.4–34.2] 27.1 [25.7–28.5] 0.0007 [3.41]
 Started lithium 42.5 [39.8–45.2] 35.9 [34.2–37.6] <0.0001 [4.19]
 Final lithium 65.0 [62.4–67.6] 52.0 [50.3–53.7] <0.0001 [8.09]
Co-treatments (%)
 Anticonvulsants 23.7 45.5 0.001 [10.4]
 Antipsychotics 47.4 64.6 0.01 [6.40]
 Antidepressants 25.0 36.1 0.07 [3.25]
Initial eGFR 77.2 ± 16.1 94.6 ± 21.9 <0.0001 [6.74]
  1. Means are with 95% CI. Serum lithium concentration is in mEq/L; dose is of lithium carbonate is total mg/day. Additional factors not associated with low eGFR: (1) diagnosis (bipolar I vs. bipolar II), (2) education, (3) metabolic syndrome (overall risk = 30.4%), (4) any substance abuse, (5) alcohol abuse, (6) smoking, (7) any suicidal act, (8) serum TSH. Medical illnesses include cardiovascular and metabolic syndromes
  2. aLow eGFR: subjects with at least one value <60 mL/min/1.73 m2; the observed rate of such subjects was 92/312 (29.5%), but 312/2669 assays (11.3%)