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Table 2 Cognitive functioning in participants following FEM relative to healthy controls

From: Cognitive functioning following stabilisation from first episode mania

  FEM HC Test statistic Value df p value Effect size
Median (min–max) Median (min–max)
Intelligence (WASI)a
 Verbal IQ 102 (63–128) 109 (96–130) M–W 297.5 61 .084 0.22
 Performance IQ 104 (75–128) 115 (90–129) M–W 280 61 .046 0.26
 Full-scale IQ 107 (70–128) 113 (98–126) M–W 250.5 61 .014 0.31
Processing speed
 Trail Making Test-Aa 31 (19–72) 22 (13–41) M–W 120.5 61 < .001 0.57
 Digit symbol codinga 73 (30–106) 80 (60–125) M–W 207 61 .002 0.4
 Go/No-Gob, go reaction time 294.96 (238.13–424.11) 304.91 (258.77–387.96) M–W 355 60 .480 0.09
 Cogstatec, detection reaction time 2.44 (2.32–2.69) 2.43 (2.36–2.59) M–W 362 58 .668 0.06
Attention
 Digit Span forwarda 8 (4–12) 10 (5–12) M–W 370 61 .532 0.08
 Go/No-Gob, go misses 0 (0–8) 0 (0–6) M–W 382 60 .753 0.04
 Stroopd, congruent errors 2.5 (0–15) 2 (0–13) M–W 374.5 58 .928 0.01
 Cogstatec, identification reaction time 2.66 (2.55–2.91) 2.66 (2.54–2.80) M–W 345.5 58 .487 0.09
Sustained attentione
 ANT, alerting reaction time 44.61 (− 99.46 to 162.3) 38.56 (− 21.45 to 97.28) M–W 373 59 .785 0.04
 ANT, orienting reaction time 164.15 (13.67–316.42) 159.54 (15.70–232.76) M–W 364 59 .677 0.05
 ANT, executive control reaction time 226.74 (6.37–794.91) 189.81 (84.25–273.07) M–W 281 59 .081 0.23
 ANT, no cue errors 1 (0–5) 1 (0–3) M–W 358 59 .593 0.07
 ANT, spatial cue errors 1 (0–5) 1 (0–2) M–W 335.5 59 .351 0.12
 ANT, double cue errors 1 (0–5) 1 (0–10) M–W 378.5 59 .850 0.02
 ANT, congruent errors 0 (0–2) 0 (0–3) M–W 329.5 59 .248 0.15
 ANT, incongruent errors 3 (0–9) 2.5 (0–13) M–W 341.5 59 .432 0.1
Verbal learning and memorya
 Rey auditory verbal learning teste—trial 1 6 (3–12) 7.5 (4–12) M–W 215 61 .002 0.39
 Rey auditory verbal learning teste—trials 1–5 52 (26–66) 59.50 (42–71) M–W 170.5 61 < .001 0.47
 Rey auditory verbal learning teste—delayed recall 11 (3–15) 14 (10–15) M–W 174 61 < .001 0.47
Non-verbal learning and memory
 Cogstate, one-card learningf 1.01 (0.26–1.22) 1.03 (0.82–1.12) M–W 339.5 57 .609 0.07
 Cogstate, Groton Maze Learning Test, delayed, errorsg 6 (0–24) 4 (0–11) M–W 291.5 57 .187 0.17
Working memory
 Digit Span backwarda 4 (1–10) 7 (3–12) M–W 186.5 61 .001 0.44
Verbal fluencya
 FAS 37 (17–59) 43 (17–58) M–W 309.5 61 .122 0.2
 Animal category 21 (11–32) 23 (16–27) M–W 280 61 .045 0.26
Executive functions
 Trail Making Test-Bh 75 (31–215) 51 (30–116) M–W 207 60 .004 0.37
 Go/No-Gob, no-go false alarms 9.5 (2–21) 6.5 (1–16) M–W 282 60 .063 0.24
 Stroop effectd, reaction time 360.02 (97.20–603.79) 380.58 (115.75–618.27) M–W 364 58 .794 0.03
 Stroopd, incongruent errors 7 (1–26) 6 (3–24) M–W 378 58 .974 < 0.01
 Cogstatec, Groton Maze Learning Test, errors 54 (23.00–142.00) 51.00 (32.00–115.00) M–W 347 58 .502 0.09
  1. FEM first episode mania, HC healthy controls, ANT attention network test, M–W Mann–Whitney U test
  2. ANT, alerting reaction time = no cue reaction time − double cue reaction time
  3. ANT, orienting reaction time = double cue reaction time − spatial cue reaction time
  4. ANT, executive control reaction time = incongruent trials reaction time − congruent trials reaction time
  5. ANT, no cue errors = total errors for the no cue conditions
  6. ANT, spatial cue errors = total errors for the spatial cue conditions
  7. ANT, double cue errors = total errors for the double cue conditions
  8. ANT, congruent errors = total errors for the congruent trials
  9. ANT, incongruent errors = total errors for the incongruent trials
  10. Stroop effect = incongruent condition reaction time − congruent condition reaction time
  11. Stroop, congruent errors = total errors for the congruent trials
  12. Stroop, incongruent errors = total errors for the incongruent trials
  13. Go/No-Go, go reaction time = reaction time for go responses
  14. Go/No-Go, no-go false alarms = sum of false responses to no-go stimulus
  15. Go/No-Go, go misses = sum of missed responses to go stimulus
  16. aMissing data (HC, n = 1)
  17. bMissing data (FEM, n = 1; HC, n = 1)
  18. cMissing data (FEM, n = 5)
  19. dMissing data (FEM, n = 3; HC, n = 1)
  20. eMissing data (FEM, n = 2; HC, n = 1)
  21. fMissing data (FEM, n = 4; HC, n = 1)
  22. gMissing data (FEM, n = 5; HC, n = 1)
  23. hMissing data (HC, n = 2)