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Table 5 Case reports of histologically confirmed renal tumor associated with lithium treatment from the literature and from the present case series

From: Thyroid and renal tumors in patients treated with long-term lithium: case series from a lithium clinic, review of the literature and international pharmacovigilance reports

Authors Pathological diagnosis Cysts Years on lithium Sex Age eGFR ml/min/1.73 m2 (CKD category)a
Markowitz et al. (2000) (2 cases) Oncocytoma + 20 M 50 13 (G5)
Papillary renal-cell carcinoma + 25 M 56 27 (G4)
Rookmaaker et al. (2012) (6 cases) Collecting-ducts carcinoma + 17 M 69 11 (G5)
Collecting-ducts carcinoma + 12 M 59 50 (G3a)
Collecting-ducts carcinoma + 15 M 61 48 (G3a)
Oncocytoma + 30 M 70 6 (G5)
Oncocytoma + 41 F 65 35 (G3b)
Oncocytoma + collecting-ducts carcinoma + 30 F 71 37 (3b)
Kjaersgaard et al. (2012) Renal-cell carcinoma + 28 M 71 Not available
Zardawi et al. (2013) Renal-cell carcinoma + 12 F 72 21 (G4)
Zaidan et al. (2014b) (14 cases) Clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma 17 M 69 48 (G3a)
Clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma + 31 F 75 27 (G4)
Clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma 18 F 70 24 (G4)
Clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma + leiomyomatous stroma 41 F 71 55 (G3a)
Oncocytomas + papillary adenomas + 23 M 60 10 (G5)
Oncocytoma + 32 M 66 33 (G3b)
Oncocytoma + 16 M 68 52 (G3a)
Oncocytoma + 26 F 59 34 (G3b)
Angiomyolipoma 21 F 65 24 (G4)
Angiomyolipoma >10 F 77 68 (G2)
Papillary renal-cell carcinoma + 15 M 56 52 (G3a)
Papillary renal-cell carcinoma 35 M 54 61 (G2)
Oncocytoma + chromophobe renal-cell carcinoma + 10 F 66 5 (G5)
Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor + 3 F 46 71 (G2)
Jung (2016) Renal-cell carcinoma 15 F 54 29 (G4)
This study (3 cases) Clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma 8 M 56 86 (G2)
Clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma 14 M 55 105 (G1)
Oncocytomab 18 F 52 40 (G3b)
  1. aeGFR was calculated from reported serum creatinine concentrations using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group equation (Levey et al. 1999). The following are the categories of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to KDIGO (2017) based on eGFR: G1, “Normal or high” (≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m2); G2, “Mildly decreased” (60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2); G3a, “Mildly to moderately decreased” (45–59 ml/min/1.73 m2); G3b, “Moderately to severely decreased” (30–44 ml/min/1.73 m2); G4, “Severely decreased” (15–29 ml/min/1.73 m2); G5, “Kidney failure” (< 15 ml/min/1.73 m2). It must be noted that KDIGO CKD stages are also based on albuminuria categories, which were not included in the present table
  2. bCase with concurrent thyroid carcinoma described in this paper