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Table 3 Demographics, family history, and clinical characteristics in patients with and without premorbid traumatic brain injury

From: Clinical characteristics of patients with bipolar disorder and premorbid traumatic brain injury: a cross-sectional study

  All (n = 505) +pTBI (n = 37) −pTBI (n = 468) p-value
Demographics
 Age 505 41 (15) 42 (13) 0.74a
 Female sex 505 21/37 (57) 265/468 (57) 1.0c
 Years of education 495 4.8 (3.1) 4.4 (3.1) 0.55b
Family history
 Schizophrenia 496 4/37 (11) 9/459 (2.0) 0.012d
 Bipolar disorder 497 5/37 (14) 105/460 (23) 0.27c
 Depression 497 26/37 (70) 199/460 (43) 0.0027c
 Any 497 27/37 (73) 247/460 (54) 0.036c
Mood state
 Depressed 504 28/37 (76) 305/467 (65) 0.27c
 Euthymic 504 1/37 (2.7) 12/467 (2.6) 1.0c
 Mixed 504 1/37 (2.7) 22/467 (4.7) 0.88c
 Hypomanic 504 0/37 (0) 10/467 (2.1) 0.77c
 Manic 504 7/37 (19) 118/467 (25) 0.51c
Course of illness
 Age at onset 505 20 (12) 19 (11) 0.81b
 Duration of illness 505 21 (14) 23 (14) 0.45b
 Bipolar disorder subtype 505    0.57d
  Type I   18/37 (49) 247/468 (53)  
  Type II   18/37 (49) 213/468 (46)  
  Cyclothymia   0/37 (0) 1/468 (2)  
  Not otherwise specified   1/37 (3) 7/468 (1)  
 Depressive episodes per year 420 1.3 (1.8) 0.78 (1.1) 0.014b
 Hypomanic episodes per year 424 1.4 (2.0) 0.92 (2.2) 0.025b
 Manic episodes per year 461 0.073 (0.15) 0.091 (0.21) 0.23b
 Hypomania/mania:depression ratio 405 1.3 (1.1) 2.1 (5.2) 0.59b
 Admissions per decade 449 0.82 (1.1) 1.4 (2.6) 0.24b
 Rapid cycling 491 14/35 (40) 103/456 (23) 0.034c
 Serious suicidal attempt(s) 500 14/37 (38) 202/463 (44) 0.61c
Current pharmacological treatment
 Lithium 483 12/33 (36) 102/450 (23) 0.11c
 Anticonvulsants 483 20/33 (61) 302/450 (67) 0.57c
 Antipsychotics 483 19/33 (58) 270/450 (60) 0.93c
 Antidepressants 483 12/33 (36) 165/450 (37) 1.0c
Comorbidity
 Epileptic seizures 505 1/37 (2.7) 9/468 (1.9) 0.54d
 Migraine 501 13/36 (36) 59/465 (13) 0.00030c*
 Obesity 498 4/36 (11) 79/462 (17) 0.49c
 Alcohol, abuse or dependence 505 5/37 (14) 64/468 (14) 1.0c
 Other substances, abuse or dependence 505 2/37 (5.4) 28/468 (6.0) 1.0d
 Childhood AD(H)D 497 6/37 (16) 33/460 (7.2) 0.059c
Symptom composition
 YMRS elated component score 484 0.12 (1.2) − 0.020 (0.98) 0.77b
 YMRS disruptive component score 484 0.54 (1.7) − 0.050 (0.90) 0.0044b
 IDS-C30 depressed component score 446 0.19 (1.0) 0.011 (1.0) 0.30b
 IDS-C30 activated component score 446 0.21 (0.86) − 0.046 (0.99) 0.041b
Symptom burden
 YMRS total score 497 7.9 (11) 5.4 (7.8) 0.16b
 IDS-C30 total score 490 28 (14) 24 (15) 0.087b
  1. Results are presented by fraction (%) for categorical variables and mean (SD) for continuous variables. +pTBI premorbid traumatic brain injury. −pTBI no premorbid traumatic brain injury
  2. * Multiple comparisons p-value threshold = 0.0013
  3. aIndependent samples t-test
  4. bMann–Whitney-U test
  5. cPearson’s Chi squared test
  6. dFisher’s exact test