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Table 4 Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in patients with bipolar disorder

From: Metabolic profile in patients with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives

  Model B 95% CI P-value
1 Metabolic syndrome
a Illness durationa 0.637 0.409–0.993 0.047
b BD type I vs. type II 0.769 0.345–1.705 0.5
c Lithium 0.993 0.438–2.252 1.0
d Antipsychotics 0.845 0.361–1.981 0.7
e Antiepileptics 0.782 0.350–1.748 0.5
f Antidepressants 2.517 1.717–3.691 0.7
g Medication with metabolic adverse effects 2.325 0.873–6.194 0.1
2 Insulin resistance
a Illness durationa 0.987 0.974–1.000 0.056
b BD type I vs. type II 0.891 0.745–1.065 0.2
c Lithium 1.242 1.045–1.478 0.014
d Antipsychotics 1.082 0.903–1.294 0.4
e Antiepileptics 0.874 0.736–1.040 0.1
f Antidepressants 1.075 0.882–1.310 0.3
g Medication with metabolic adverse effects 1.298 1.088–1.550 0.004
  1. Model 1: Separate generalized linear mixed models of metabolic syndrome (a–g) in patients with BD, adjusted for age and sex. B represents odds ratios
  2. Model 2: Separate linear mixed models of insulin resistance (a–g) in patients with BD, adjusted for age and sex. B represents back transformed beta values
  3. BD I and BD II: Bipolar Disorder type I and II, respectively. aIllness duration was defined as time from first episode (depressive, hypomanic, manic or mixed episode)