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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the bipolar disorder group without childhood ADHD (BD − cADHD) and the bipolar disorder group with childhood ADHD (BD + cADHD)

From: Neuropsychological profiles of adult bipolar disorder patients with and without comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

  BD − cADHD (n = 58–66a ) BD +   cADHD (n = 24–32a) p-value
Male, N (%) 28 (42.4) 15 (46.9) .68
Female, N (%) 38 (57.6) 17 (53.1)
Age, mean (SD) 37.7 (13.6) 35.2 (11.5) .36
Age at first psychiatric symptom, mean (SD) 20.4 (8.4) 14.8 (10) .01
Age at first affective episode, mean (SD) 20.9 (8.1) 16.0 (7.1) .01
Bipolar I, N (%) 44 (67.7) 15 (55.6) .27
Bipolar II, N (%) 21 (32.3) 12 (44.4)
Any comorbid psychiatric diagnosis, N (%) 36 (58.1) 20 (76.9) .09
AUDIT, mean (SD) 5.5 (4.5) 6.6 (7) .49
DUDIT, mean (SD) 0.9 (2.5) 2.6 (6.6) .22
MADRS, mean (SD) 4.6 (4) 3.9 (3.3) .40
YMRS, mean (SD) 1.3 (2.1) 2 (2.7) .16
No of mood episodes, mean (SD)
 Mania 1.9 (2.7) 1.7 (2.9) .81
 Hypomania 4.3 (7.7) 7.3 (11.8) .16
 Mixed 0.4 (1.8) 6 (10.4) .01
 Depressive 8.9 (10.9) 16 (21.1) .11
 History of attempted suicide and/or self-harm, N (%) 22 (34.4) 13 (48.1) .22
 Pharmacological treatment, N (%)
 Lithium 46 (70.8) 11 (36.7) .00
 Other mood stabilizers 13 (20) 15 (50) .00
 Antidepressant 24 (36.9) 10 (33.3) .73
 Antipsychotics 13 (20) 5 (16.7) .70
 Central stimulants 0 0  
WAIS-III estimated IQ 107.9 (16) 106.4 (10.9) .60
At least 2 years university education, N (%) 38 (58.5) 15 (55.6) .80
Working, N (%) 47 (73.4) 18 (66.7) .51
Sick-leave days previous  12 months, mean (SD) 116.7 (145.6) 91.3 (134.8) .45
  1. aData were missing for some patients, therefore the N varies