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Table 2 Comparison of neuropsychological test performance of the bipolar disorder group without childhood ADHD (BD − cADHD) and the bipolar disorder group with childhood ADHD (BD + cADHD)

From: Neuropsychological profiles of adult bipolar disorder patients with and without comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

  BD − cADHD (n = 56–64a) BD + cADHD (n = 23–31a) t-value p value Cohen’s d
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
WAIS-III: Verbal Comprehension Index 109.8 (12.9) 112.5 (10.6) − .98 .33 − .23
WAIS-III: Perceptual Organization Index 109.4 (16.5) 106.1 (14.4) .91 .37 .21
WAIS-III: Working Memory Index 102.2 (14.9) 95.4 (11) 2.15 .03 .52
WAIS-III: Processing Speed Index 99.1 (15.8) 95.9 (10.9) 1.12 .27 .24
CPT2 omission errorsb 53.5 (15.8) 53.9 (16.7) − .10 .92 − .02
CPT2 comission errorsb 54.2 (9.9) 54.4 (10.1) − .05 .96 -.02
ColorWord 4 (Inh/Swi) 9.9 (3) 9.5 (3.1) .66 .51 .13
Tower test total 11.4 (3.3) 10.4 (3.7) 1.17 .25 .29
RCFT: immediate recall 43.5 (14.2) 41.6 (16) .70 .49 .15
Claeson Dahl verbal learning 46 (12.9) 48.8 (9.3) − 1.15 .25 − .25
  1. aData were missing for some patients, therefore the N varies
  2. bHigher score indicates better performance on all tests except CPT, where lower score indicates better performance