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Table 2 Accuracy problems in studies using physiological measurements by wearables

From: Smartphones in mental health: a critical review of background issues, current status and future concerns

Measure Number tested Wearables Patients Finding Study
Total energy expenditure 12 devices Withings Pulse
Garmin Vivofit
Suzuken Lifecorder EX
Panasonic Actimaker
Epson Pulsense
Fitbit Flex
Misfit Shine
Omron Active Style Pro
Omron CaloriScan
19 healthy adults, not obese. “absolute values differed widely among products and varied significantly from the gold standard measures” Murakami et al. (2016)
Step count 3 pedometers Yamax
14 young health participants walking at 3 speeds “all the evaluated devices had high error rates at 1 km/h” (slow walking speeds). Beevi et al. (2016)
Step count 10 activity trackers Polar Loop
Garmin Vivosmart
Fitbit Charge HR
Apple Watch Sport
Pebble Smartwatch
Samsung Gear S
Misfit Flash
Jawbone Up Move
31 healthy participants on a treadmill “Test–retest validity depends on walking speed”; “consumer activity trackers perform better at average and vigorous walking speed…” Fokkema et al. (2017)
Sleep 2 monitors Withings Pulse
Jawbone Up
36, including 22 with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) “confirmed… in patients suffering from OSA, the limited performance of wearable sleep monitors” Gruwez et al. (2019)
Sleep 2 monitors Fitbit Change 2
25 students Underestimate light sleep and overestimate deep sleep. “Reasonably satisfactory for general purpose and non-clinical use” Liang and Martell (2018)