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Table 3 Differences in depressive, hypomanic, manic and overall bipolar symptoms depending on gender and childhood trauma

From: Role of child maltreatment and gender for bipolar symptoms in young adults

 GenderEmotional abusePhysical abuseSexual abuse
MaleFemalezNoYeszNoYeszNoYesz
MdnMdnMdnMdnMdnMdnMdnMdn
Depressive symptoms
 BDI 159− 2.36*723− 4.81***814− 2.17*817− 2.49*
 BDI 258− 2.51*717− 3.53***716− 3.03**717− 2.54*
 BDI 349− 2.91**717− 4.06***717− 2.24*721− 3.03**
 BDI 458− 2.44*514− 3.07**617− 1.99*614− 2.17*
 BDI 566− 0.99513− 3.87***615− 2.82**619− 3.35**
Hypomanic symptoms
 HCL 11616− 0.361617− 1.231617− 1.331618− 2.08*
 HCL 21515− 0.331517− 0.621518− 1.181517− 1.96
 HCL 31414− 0.121415− 1.98*1416− 0.491415− 1.40
 HCL 41313− 0.051316− 1.031318− 1.481317− 2.24*
 HCL 51212− 0.031216− 1.051217− 1.331217− 2.01*
Manic symptoms
 ASRM 122− 0.9622− 1.1922− 0.4622− 0.16
 ASRM 222− 0.1423− 0.9723− 0.3822− 0.29
 ASRM 322− 1.1925− 1.97*23− 0.6922− 1.75
 ASRM 421− 0.1423− 1.3923− 1.3723− 1.41
 ASRM 521− 1.8911− 0.2110− 0.8410− 2.06*
Overall bipolar symptoms
 BSB 11014− 2.22*1221− 3.85***1217.5− 1.141215− 1.85
 BSB 21011− 1.251017− 2.99**10.512.5− 0.251111− 0.65
 BSB 3912− 1.931122− 3.54***1112.5− 0.541118− 2.29*
 BSB 4812− 2.55*920− 3.36**1011− 1.361014− 2.12*
 BSB 588− 0.81817− 3.55***87.5− 1.02812− 1.85
  1. BDI Beck Depression Inventory, HCL Hypomania Checklist, ASRM Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale, BSB Bochumer Screeningbogen Bipolar, Mdn median, *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001