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Table 3 Mean values on PCERA-clustered subscales at 3 and 12 months and within- and between-group changes in the BD and the non-clinical sample from 3 to 12 months

From: Bipolar offspring and mothers: interactional challenges at infant age 3 and 12 months—a developmental pathway to enhanced risk?

Outcome variable Sample Mean (sd) Mean (sd) Mean within group change Mean between group change
size, n at 3 monthsa at 12 monthsa 3–12 monthsb (95% CI); p-value 3–12 monthsa (95% CI); p-value
Maternal tone of voice
 BD sample 26 4.26# (0.41) 3.99¤ (0.49) − 0.27 (− 0.45 to − 0.09); 0.006* − 0.54 (− 0.84 to − 0.23); 0.01*
 Non-clinical sample 28 4.60 (0.51) 4.86 (0.27) 0.27 (0.52 to 0.02); 0.04*
Mother’s characteristic mood
 BD sample 26 4.23 (0.31) 4.09¤ (0.43) − 0.14 (− 0.32 to 0.05); 0.14 − 0.49 (− 0.76 to − 0.22); 0.01*
 Non-clinical sample 28 4.26 (0.50) 4.61 (0.23) 0.35 (0.55 to 0.15); 0.001*
Maternal affective and behavioural involvement
 BD sample 26 3.61# (0.46) 3.50¤ (0.56) − 0.11 (− 0.34 to 0.12); 0.34 − 0.13 (− 0.54 to 0.28); 0.53
 Non-clinical sample 28 4.15 (0.70) 4.18 (0.57) 0.02 (0.36 to − 0.32); 0.90
Maternal style
 BD sample 26 3.88 (0.36) 3.94¤ (0.47) 0.05 (0.26 to − 0.15); 0.60 − 0.50 (− 0.84 to − 0.15); 0.005*
 Non-clinical sample 28 4.02 (0.72) 4.57 (0.30) 0.55 (0.83 to 0.27); < 0.001*
Infant expressed affect and characteristic mood
 BD sample 26 3.71 (0.58) 4.13¤ (0.43) 0.42 (0.67 to 0.18); 0.002* − 0.16 (− 0.50 to 0.18); 0.36
 Non-clinical sample 28 3.91 (0.64) 4.49 (0.44) 0.58 (0.83 to 0.33); < 0.001*
Infant behavioural and adaptive abilities
 BD sample 26 3.48 (0.57) 3.87¤ (0.43) 0.40 (0.64 to 0.15); 0.003* − 0.24 (− 0.64 to 0.15); 0.22
 Non-clinical sample 28 3.76 (0.72) 4.39 (0.39) 0.64 (0.95 to 0.32); < 0.001*
Infant communication
 BD sample 26 3.28 (0.77) 3.32¤ (0.69) 0.04 (0.43 to − 0.35); 0.84 − 0.03 (− 0.57 to 0.50); 0.90
 Non-clinical sample 28 3.73 (0.86) 3.80 (0.53) 0.07 (0.45 to − 0.31); 0.70
Dyadic affective quality
 BD sample 26 3.5# (0.65) 3.46¤ (0.68) − 0.04 (0.26 to − 0.34); 0.79 − 0.28 (− 0.67 to 0.11); 0.16
 Non-clinical sample 28 4.06 (0.64) 4.30 (0.47) 0.24 (0.51 to − 0.03); 0.08
Dyadic mutuality
 BD sample 26 3.01# (0.63) 2.94¤ (0.63) − 0.07 (0.23 to − 0.36); 0.64 − 0.26 (− 0.78 to 0.25); 0.30
 Non− clinical sample 28 3.82 (0.88) 4.02 (0.65) 0.20 (0.63 to − 0.23); 0.36
  1. aIndependent samples t-test
  2. bPaired samples t-test
  3. #Statistically significant mean group difference at 3 months, p < 0.05. ¤ Statistically significant mean group difference at 12 months, p < 0.05. *Statistically significant results