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Table 2 Associations between smartphone-based activity measurementsa and self-reported physical activity and observer-based rating scales for depression, mania and functioning (data pooled for patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected relatives and healthy control individuals)

From: Smartphone-based activity measurements in patients with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, unaffected relatives and control individuals

  Model 1 Model 2
B 95% CI p B 95% CI p
Self-reported smartphone-based activity N = 482
 IPAQ 1.17 0.80;1.54  < 0.001 1.16 0.79;1.53  < 0.001
 HAMD-17 sub-item 8 −0.44 −0.58:−0.29  < 0.001 −0.45 −0.60;−0.31  < 0.001
 HAMD-17 sub-item 9 −0.33 −0.50;−0.16  < 0.001 −0.35 −0.52;−0.17  < 0.001
 YMRS sub-item 2 0.22 0.09;0.36 0.002 0.23 0.09;0.37 0.001
 YMRS sub-item 6 0.08 −0.02;0.17 0.10 0.08 −0.02;0.17 0.11
 FAST −0.020 −0.026;−0.014  < 0.001 −0.20 −0.26;−0.15  < 0.001
Step counts
 IPAQ N = 74 0.02 −0.32;0.36 0.90 0.007 −0.34;0.36 0.97
 HAMD-17 sub-item 8 N = 88 −750.5 −1800;299.8 0.16 −668.4 −1749;412.3 0.22
 HAMD-17 sub-item 9 −617.9 −1932;696.1 0.35 −643.7 −1967;679.7 0.34
 YMRS sub-item 2 134.1 −997.9;1266 0.81 85.2 −1055;1226 0.88
 YMRS sub-item 6 −187.8 −945.4;569.8 0.62 −192.5 −970.6;585.6 0.62
 FAST N = 97 −40.9 −73.5;−8.28 0.015 −39.1 −72.1;−6.04 0.021
Screen time (seconds/day) N = 179
 IPAQ N = 116 −0.67 −1.35;0.01 0.053 −0.57 −1.25;0.11 0.10
 HAMD-17 sub-item 8 N = 137 2603 1064;4141 0.001 2177 −612.5;3741 0.007
 HAMD-17 sub-item 9 2658 422.0;4893 0.020 2488 286.2.4690 0.027
 YMRS sub-item 2 −701.0 −2589;1187 0.46 −600.4 −2457;1256 0.52
 YMRS sub-item 6 531.8 −755.1;1818 0.42 566.5 −700.1;1833 0.38
 FAST N = 145 111.7 36.1;187.4 0.004 92.2 17.3;167.0 0.016
Screen on (number/day) N = 179
 IPAQ N = 116 −0.17 −2.77;2.44 0.90 0.51 −2.16;3.17 0.71
 HAMD-17 sub-item 8 N = 137 −10.5 −18.0;−3.06 0.006 −11.8 −19.2;−4.33 0.002
 HAMD-17 sub-item 9 −9.29 −20.3;1.76 0.098 −10.1 −21.1;0.79 0.069
 YMRS sub-item 2 8.96 −0.17;18.1 0.054 8.72 −0.34;17.8 0.059
 YMRS sub-item 6 2.92 −3.26;9.10 0.35 3.53 −2.62:9.68 0.26
 FAST n = 145 −0.29 −0.64;−0.06 0.11 −0.32 −0.67;−0.03 0.071
Incoming calls (number/day) N = 180
 IPAQ N = 137 −0.04 −0.74;0.82 0.92 −0.01 −0.08;0.08 0.98
 HAMD-17 sub-item 8 N = 155 0.13 −0.12;0.40 0.31 0.14 −0.11;0.39 0.28
 HAMD-17 sub-item 9 0.40 0.07;0.74 0.019 0.41 0.07;0.74 0.019
 YMRS sub-item 2 0.15 −0.12;0.41 0.28 0.14 −0.13;0.40 0.32
 YMRS sub-item 6 0.14 −0.02;0.30 0.087 0.14 −0.02;0.31 0.086
 FAST N = 167 0.005 −0.004;0.015 0.31 0.006 −0.004;0.016 0.26
Outgoing calls (number/day) N = 180
 IPAQ N = 137 0.68 −0.80;0.22 0.36 −0.66 −0.86:0.22 0.39
 HAMD-17 sub-item 8 N = 155 −0.13 −0.61;0.36 0.61 −0.12 −0.61;0.38 0.63
 HAMD-17 sub-item 9 0.35 −0.31;1.02 0.30 0.37 −0.30;1.03 0.28
 YMRS sub−item 2 0.95 0.46;1.45  < 0.001 0.94 0.43;1.44  < 0.001
 YMRS sub-item 6 0.27 −0.05;0.58 0.097 0.27 −0.05;0.59 0.092
 FAST N = 167 −0.009 −0.029;0.012 0.42 −0.007 −0.027;0.014 0.52
Missed calls (number/day) = 180
 IPAQ N = 137 −0.08 −0.60;0.44 0.78 −0.10 −0.64;0.43 0.70
 HAMD-17 sub-item 8 N = 155 0.13 −0.06;0.31 0.17 0.13 −0.05;0.32 0.16
 HAMD-17 sub-item 9 0.002 −0.25;0.25 0.99 0.007 −0.25;0.26 0.96
 YMRS sub-item 2 0.03 −0.17;0.23 0.75 0.04 −0.16;0.25 0.70
 YMRS sub-item 6 0.04 −0.08;0.16 0.54 0.03 −0.08;0.16 0.58
 FAST N = 167 0.005 −0.020;0.011 0.17 0.005 −0.002;0.011 0.18
Duration of phone calls (seconds/day) N = 180
 IPAQ N = 137 −0.01 −0.07;0.05 0.74 −0.01 −0.07;0.06 0.79
 HAMD-17 sub-item 8 N = 155 −2.77 −216;210 0.98 −15.3 −230;199 0.89
 HAMD-17 sub-item 9 91.2 −199.1:381.5 0.54 69.5 −219.6;358.6 0.64
 YMRS sub-item 2 202,5 −24,3;429,3 0.080 208.1 −18.9;435.1 0.072
 YMRS sub-item 6 74.5 −65.4;214.3 0.29 72.6 −66.9;212.1 0.43
 FAST N = 167 0.27 −5.34;9.88 0.56 1.89 −5.78;9.58 0.63
Incoming text messages (number/day) N = 180
 IPAQ N = 133 0.17 −0.19;0.52 0.35 0.11 −0.25:0.46 0.55
 HAMD-17 sub-item 8 N = 159 0.54 −0.62;1.71 0.36 0.67 −0.49;1.82 0.26
 HAMD-17 sub-item 9 1.00 −0.57;2.56 0.21 1.12 −0.43;2.67 0.16
 YMRS sub-item 2 −0.50 −1.78;0.78 0.38 −0.46 −1.73;0.81 0.48
 YMRS sub-item 6 0.18 −0.64;0.99 0.67 −0.09 −0.71;0.89 0.83
 FAST N = 168 −0.005 −0.046;0.044 0.98 −0.002 −0.047;0.042 0.92
Outgoing text messages (number/day) N = 180
 IPAQ N = 133 0.26 −0.85;0.60 0.14 0.19 −0.16,0.53 0.29
 HAMD-17 sub-item 8 N = 159 0.29 −0.82;1.93 0.61 0.38 −0.72;1.47 0.49
 HAMD-17 sub-item 9 0.71 −0.77;2.20 0.34 0.81 −0.65;2.27 0.23
 YMRS sub-item 2 −0.56 −1.77;0.64 0.36 −0.51 −1.70;0.68 0.40
 YMRS sub-item 6 0.06 −0.70;0.82 0.87 −0.01 −0.77;0.74 0.97
 FAST N = 168 −0.02 −0.06;0.03 0.43 −0.02 −0.06;0.02 0.38
  1. Significant p values are given in italic
  2. IPAQ The Physical Activity Questionnaire—short form, a measure of physical activity 7 days prior to assessment, HAMD-17 The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item. Sub-item 8 and 9 addressing psychomotor retardation and agitation, respectively, YMRS total The Young Mania Rating Scale. Subitem 2 and 6 addressing motor activity and speech, respectively, FAST The Functional Assessment Short Test, a measure of global functioning 14 days prior to assessment
  3. aSmartphone-based activity measurements: Averages of smartphone-based activity ratings were calculated for the current day and 3 days before ratings with HAMD-17 and YMRS, 7 days prior for rating IPAQ and 14 days prior for FAST.
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