Skip to main content

Table 2 Descriptive statistics for FFMQ and DERS by diagnostic group

From: A pilot investigation of emotional regulation difficulties and mindfulness-based strategies in manic and remitted bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder

  BD-remitted (n = 32) BD-manic (n = 19) MDD-remitted (n = 32) CTL (n = 30) Main effect of group
FFMQ
 Non-reactivity 20.72 (4.33)a 19.63 (4.68)b 21.28 (5.13)c 24.23 (3.99) a,b,c F(3, 109) = 4.99, p = .003
 Observing 25.53 (7.00) 26.89 (9.00) 26.75 (7.53) 26.80 (13.72) F(3, 109) = .35, p = .788
 Acting with awareness 22.13 (5.89)a 20.12 (5.77)b,f 23.19 (5.58)c,f 30.00 (3.92)a,b,c F(3, 109) = 17.63, p < .001
 Describing 28.31 (6.78)a 27.95 (7.86)b 29.19 (5.57)c 33.53 (4.70)a,b,c F(3, 109) = 4.96, p = .003
 Non-Judging 27.84 (8.77)a 25.79 (8.16)b 28.90 (5.99)c 33.83 (5.49)a,b,c F(3, 107) = 5.98, p = .001
DERS
 Non-acceptance 13.25 (5.25)a 14.67 (7.34)b 13.09 (4.90)c 9.90 (4.86)a,b,c F(3, 108) = 3.54, p = .017
 Goals 15.34 (4.29)a 16.67 (5.59)b 15.53 (4.47)c 10.80 (4.21)a,b,c F(3, 108) = 8.87, p < .001
 Impulse 12.69 (4.80)a,d 16.94 (7.22)b,d,f 12.03 (4.30)f 8.03 (2.51)a,b,c F(3, 108) = 14.15, p < .001
 Awareness 15.03 (5.00) 14.94 (4.72) 13.66 (4.04) 12.80 (4.43) F(3, 108) = 1.58, p = .199
 Strategies 18.66 (7.98)a 20.55 (7.09)b 18.56 (6.94)c 10.87 (3.38)a,b,c F(3, 107) = 10.94, p < .001
 Clarity 12.00 (5.09)a 10.28 (3.78) 11.09 (2.99)c 8.87 (3.78)a,c F(3, 108) = 3.75, p = .013
  1. BD-remitted Bipolar I disorder remitted group, BD-manic Bipolar I disorder manic group, MDD major depressive disorder remitted group, CTL healthy control group, FFMQ Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (higher scores = increased mindfulness), DERS Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (higher scores = more difficulties in emotion regulation). Mean scores are displayed with standard deviations in parentheses. In each row, means sharing a superscript letter (a, b, c, d, or e) were significantly different in pairwise group comparisons (p < .05): aBD-remitted significantly different from CTL; bBD-manic significantly different from CTL; cMDD-remitted significantly different from CTL; dBD-remitted significantly different from BD-manic; eBD-remitted significantly different from MDD; fBD-manic significantly different from MDD-remitted