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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), unaffected relatives (UR) and healthy controls (HC)

From: Melanopsin-mediated pupillary responses in bipolar disorder—a cross-sectional pupillometric investigation

  BD UR HC p
n 31 22 35  
Age (median [IQR]) 29 [25–32.5] 24 [22–28.5] 28 [25–31.5] 0.008
Male sex, n (%) 11 (35.5) 6 (27.3) 12 (34.3) 0.803
Dark eyes, n (%) 7 (22.6) 2 (9.1) 6 (17.1) 0.454
Time of assessment, minutes (mean (SD)) 263 (143) 292 (154) 302 (150) 0.578
Daylength, minutes (median [IQR]) 778 [685–943] 915 [813–955] 852 [703–972] 0.176
HDRS (median [IQR]) 8 [5.5–13] 1 [0–2] 0 [0–1.5]  < 0.001
YMRS (median [IQR]) 2 [0–7] 0 [0–1] 0 [0–0]  < 0.001
Bipolar type 2, n (%) 22 (71)    
Current phase, n (%)
 Remission 9 (29.0)    
 Depression 7 (22.6)    
 Hypomania/mixed 3 (9.7)    
Lithium, n (%) 12 (38.7)    
Lamotrigine, n (%) 18 (58.1)    
Antipsychotic, n (%) 15 (48.4)    
Antidepressant, n (%) 6 (19.4)    
Number of agents, n (%)
 0 0 (0)    
 1 10 (32.3)    
 2 or more 21 (67.7)    
  1. Time of assessment: minutes since habitual wakeup time; Daylength: daylight minutes on day of assessment. HDRS hamilton depression rating scale, 17 item version. YMRS young mania rating scale. Current phase: remission (HDRS and YMRS < 8), depression (HDRS >/= 13 and YMRS < 13), hypomania/mixed (YMRS >/= 13). †Fishers exact test for categorical variables, t-test/Kruskal–Wallis for continuous variables