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Table 2 Pupillary outcomes in persons with bipolar disorder (BD), unaffected relatives (UR) and healthy controls (HC)

From: Melanopsin-mediated pupillary responses in bipolar disorder—a cross-sectional pupillometric investigation

  BD (n = 31) UR (n = 22) p HC (n = 35) p p
Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI BD-UR Mean 95% CI BD-HC UR-HC
Blue light
 PIPRlate 0.31 0.27–0.35 0.34 0.29–0.39 0.29 0.35 0.31–0.39 0.20 0.87
 PDbaseline (mm) 7.09 6.81–7.40 7.53 7.17–7.89 0.13 7.32 7.04–7.60 0.28 0.35
 Cmax 0.62 0.60–0.64 0.63 0.61–0.65 0.50 0.62 0.60–0.64 0.80 0.29
Red light
 PDbaseline (mm) 7.10 6.81–7.38 7.57 7.23–7.90 0.10 7.31 7.03–7.58 0.28 0.22
 Cmax 0.49 0.46–0.52 0.48 0.45–0.51 0.56 0.51 0.48–0.54 0.33 0.14
  Comparisons of UR and HC with BD in current remission  
Remission (n = 9)       
Blue light
 PIPRlate 0.26 0.20–0.33 0.33 0.28–0.38 0.34 0.35 0.31–0.38 0.04 0.67
 PDbaseline (mm) 7.04 6.49–7.61 7.53 7.17–7.89 0.38 7.32 7.04–7.60 0.38 0.36
 Cmax 0.60 0.56–0.64 0.63 0.61–0.65 0.15 0.62 0.60–0.64 0.36 0.35
Red light
 PDbaseline (mm) 7.08 6.55–7.60 7.57 7.23–7.91 0.36 7.31 7.03–7.58 0.44 0.23
 Cmax 0.44 0.39–0.49 0.48 0.44–0.51 0.42 0.51 0.48–0.54 0.02 0.13
  1. PIPRlate The mean post-illumination pupillary contraction measured at 10–30 s after stimulation, PDbaseline mean pupil diameter during the 10 s before illumination; Cmax mean pupillary contraction at 3–5 s during illumination. Remission is defined as Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale < 8