Skip to main content

Table 1 Changes in the lithium prescription rate in several European countries over the last two decades

From: Overview of lithium's use: a nationwide survey

Study Country Period Data source Results
Bohlken et al. 2020 Germany 2009–2018 Neuropsychiatric private practices' records The percentage of patients with bipolar disorder receiving lithium declined from 31,4% (2009) to 26,2% (2018)
Rhee et al. 2020 United States 1997–2000 vs. 2013–2016 Outpatient physician reports of patient visits The percentage of patients with bipolar disorder receiving lithium declined from 30,4% (1997–2000) to 17,6% (2013–2016)
Lyall et al. 2019 Scotland 2009–2016 Records of outpatient clinic attendance, general/acute hospital admissions and psychiatric hospital admissions The percentage of patients with bipolar disorder receiving lithium declined from 26% (2009) to 22% (2016)
Renes et al. 2018 Netherlands 2009–2014 Outpatient psychiatrists’ and patients’ surveys Lithium was used by 70% of patients with bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type
Karanti et al. 2016 Sweden 2007–2013 Records of private and public psychiatric outpatient health care units The percentage of patients with bipolar disorder receiving lithium declined from 51% (2007) to 41% (2013)
Kessing et al. 2016 Denmark 2000–2011 Records of all Danish patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare The one-year prescription rate of lithium in bipolar patients decreasedfrom 41% (2000) to 34% (2011)
Parabiaghi et al. 2015 Italy 2000–2010 A population-based database of dispensing records The prevalence of lithium treatment grew by 38% duringthe observation period
Hayes et al. 2011 England 1995–2009 Records of primary care patients The prescriptionrate for lithium increased from 22.5% (1995) to 29.3% (2009)
Castells et al. 2006 Spain 1985–2003 Pharmacy sales data of medicinal products Lithium daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) increased from 0.21 (1985) to 0.79 (2003)