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Table 2 Example studies of patients with bipolar disorder using data from IoT devices (wearable devices and ingestible sensors)

From: Internet of things issues related to psychiatry

Study IoT device Measure Participants Study aim
Tanaka (2018) Wrist-worn accelerometer Physical activity 94 inpatients: 57 with MDD; 35 BP with depression.* Distinguish activity patterns between adults with BP and MDD
Faedda (2016) Wrist-worn accelerometer Physical activity 155 youths: 48 with BP, 44 with ADHD; 21 with ADHD + MDD;
42 controls
Distinguish children with BP from those with ADHD and healthy controls
McGowan (2020) Wrist-worn accelerometer Physical activity 87 patients: 31 with BP; 21 with BPD; 35 healthy controls Compare rest-activity patterns in those with BP, BPD, and healthy controls
Merikangas (2019) Wrist-worn accelerometer Physical activity 242 adults: 54 with BP; 91 with MDD; 97 healthy controls Compare associations between activity, sleep, energy and mood in those with and without mood disorders
Rodríguez-Ruiz (2020) Wrist-worn accelerometer Physical activity 55 patients: 23 with BP or MDD; 32 healthy controls Compare activity in the day and night to classify depressive episodes
Janney (2014) Elasticized belt containing an accelerometer Physical activity 60 patients: 41 with BPI, 17 with BPII; 2 with BP NOS Understand the physical activity and sedentary behavior of adults with BP
Kappeler-Setz (2013) Socks with sensor of skin conductance Electrodermal activity (changes in sweat gland activity) Eight healthy subjects; feasibility study Use for long-term monitoring of patients with BP
Valenza (2014) T-shirt embedded with electrodes and sensors ECG Eight patients with BP Predict mood states from heart rate variability in patients with BP
Nardelli (2017) T-shirt embedded with electrodes and sensors ECG Eight patients; six with BPI; 2 with BPII Study of diurnal and nocturnal heartbeat dynamics in BP mood states
Gentili (2017) T-shirt embedded with electrodes and sensors ECG Eight patients with BP Predict mood changes from heart rate dynamics in patients with BP
Kopelowicz (2017) Ingestible sensor in tablets Ingestion of Abilify MyCite (aripiprazole) 49 patients; 22 with BPI; 15 with schizophrenia; 12 with MDD Implement a call center to facilitate adherence monitoring of patients using a digital pill system
  1. *BP bipolar disorder, MDD major depressive disorder, ADHD attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, BPD borderline personality disorder