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Table 1 Clinical and demographic characteristics

From: Cortisol levels in unmedicated patients with unipolar and bipolar major depression using hair and saliva specimens

  Major depression Healthy controls p values
Unipolar Bipolar
Controls, n
 Total    40 NA
 UK    32
 Chile    8
Unipolar subtype, n
 Total 59    NA
 UK 37   
 Chile 22   
Bipolar subtype, I/II, n
 Total   6/6 NA NA
 UK   5/3
 Chile   1/3
Atypical/non-atypical depression, n 24/35 3/9 NA 0.24λ
Mean age [years] (SD) 34 (10.5) 31.2 (10.6) 33.2 (8.9) 0.66
M/F 17/42 6/6 11/29 0.3
Episodes; mean (SD) 2.3 (4.0) 10.2 (18.7) 0 (0) < 0.01
Admissions; mean (SD) 0.1 (0.4) 0.6 (0.9) 0 (0) < 0.01
Mean duration of illness [weeks], (SD) 91.6 (132.9) 76.6 (151.1) 0 (0) < 0.01
HAMD-17; mean (SD) 18.2 (4.6) 13.0 (6.8) 0.3 (0.9) < 0.01
QIDS; mean (SD) 18.2 (4.2) 15.4 (6.7) 0.5 (1.4) < 0.01
YMRS; mean (SD) 1.1 (1.4) 1.4 (2.7) 0.1 (0.3) < 0.01
  1. NA not applicable, HAMD−17 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scales, QIDS Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms, YMRS Young Mania Rating Scale, SD standard deviation
  2. λp-value was obtained using Fisher’s exact test