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Table 2 Studies that investigated distraction in risk groups

From: Deficits in explicit emotion regulation in bipolar disorder: a systematic review

Study Age Medication Paradigm Dependent variables Results behavioral Results neural
Ladouceur et al. (2013) Adolescents No Task:
N-back task with emotional distractors
Valence:
Negative, positive
Participants:
HBO (n = 15)
HC (n = 16)
Behavioral:
Performance in n-back task
Neural:
fMRI, PPI
Regions of interest:
Amygdala, Ventral Striatum, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), DLPFC, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
PPI seed:
VLPFC
PPI targets:
Amygdala, DLPFC
Distraction from emotional distractors:
NS
During distraction from emotional distractors:
Right VLPFC: happy: Risk group > HC
Right VLPFC: fearful: NS
PPI during distraction from emotional distractors:
VLPFC – Amygdala (positive connectivity)
Fearful: HC > Risk group (right amygdala)
Happy: HC > Risk group (left amygdala)
Neutral: HC vs. Risk group: NS
Right VLPFC – left DLPFC (positive connectivity)
Fearful: HC vs. Risk group: NS
Happy: HC > Risk group
Neutral: HC vs. Risk group: NS
Kanske et al. (2013) Adults No Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative, positive
Participants:
High HPS scores (n = 22)
FDR (n = 17)
HC (n = 22, n = 17)
Behavioral:
Performance in the distraction task
Neural:
fMRI
RT (mental arithmetic task):
NS
During distraction:
HC vs. Risk groups: NS
Heissler et al. (2014) Young adults No Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative, positive
Participants:
High HPS scores (n = 22)
HC (n = 24)
Behavioral:
Self-report (during and after the task)
Neural:
fMRI
Regions of interest:
Emotions reactivity: Amygdala, subgenual ACC, VMPFC, occipital and ventral temporal cortices, thalamus
Emotion regulation: OFC, DLPFC, DMPFC, dACC, parietal cortex, precuneus
Rating after the experiment:
Risk group > HC
Viewing condition:
NS
Emotion regulation:
NS
Performance in the mental arithmetic task:
NS
Viewing:
Negative vs. neutral: Right Amygdala: Risk group > HC
Positive vs. neutral: NS
Distraction vs. viewing:
Negative: NS
Positive: left inferior parietal cortex: Risk group > HC
Kanske et al. (2015) Adults No Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative, positive
Participants:
FDR (n = 17)
HC (n = 17)
Behavioral:
Self-report during and after the task
Neural:
fMRI
Regions of interest:
Bilateral OFC, dorsolateral (DLPFC, middle frontal) and dorsomedial prefrontal (DMPFC, superior medial), anterior cingulate (ACC), and parietal cortex (inferior, superior)
Rating after the experiment:
Risk group > HC (all pictures more positive)
Viewing:
Positive: Risk group < HC
Negative: NS
Distraction:
NS
Viewing:
NS
Distraction vs. viewing:
NS
  1. ACC anterior cingulate cortex, dACC dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, DLPFC dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DMPFC dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging, FDR first-degree relatives, HBO healthy bipolar offspring, HC healthy controls, HPS hypomanic personality scale, NS not significant, OFC orbitofrontal cortex, PFC prefrontal cortex, PPI psychophysiological interaction, VLPFC ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, VMPFC ventromedial prefrontal cortex