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Table 5 Studies that investigated reappraisal in patients with a current affective episode

From: Deficits in explicit emotion regulation in bipolar disorder: a systematic review

Study Age Medication use Paradigm Dependent variables Results behavioral Results neural
Rive et al. (2015) Adults No Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative, positive
Participants:
BD-I/BD-II, currently depressed (n = 9)
BD-I/BD-II, remitted (n = 26)
HC (n = 36)
Behavioral:
Self-report
Neural:
fMRI
Regions of interest:
Amygdala, thalamus, insula, DLPFC, ACC, medial PFC, and hippocampus
ER success in depressed groups:
Happy: UDd < HC
BDd vs. HC: n.s. differences
Happy vs. sad:
BDd: happy > sad
HC: happy vs. sad: NS
Depressive state:
Reappraisal of happiness vs. reappraisal of sadness:
rACC: BDd > UDd
Morris et al. (2012) Adults Yes Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative
Participants:
BD-I (n = 13)
(six BD patients met criteria for euthymia and five met criteria for hypomania)
HC (n = 15)
Behavioral:
Self-report
Neural:
fMRI
Regions of interest:
Amygdala, cortico-lymbic areas with activity during ER
Coupling seed:
Amygdala
Coupling targets:
Whole brain
Self-report of emotions:
HC: Increase > Maintain > Decrease
BD: Increase > Maintain
BD: Maintain v.s. Decrease: NS
Down regulation:
Right VLPFC: BD > HC
Up regulation:
Right VLPFC: BD > HC
Rostral ACC: BD > HC
Inverse coupling of left PFC (especially left IFG) and amygdala found in HC did not occur in BD
  1. ACC anterior cingulate cortex, BD bipolar disorder, DLPFC dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging, HC healthy controls, PFC prefrontal cortex, PPI psychophysiological interaction, rACC rostral anterior cingulate cortex