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Table 6 Studies that investigated reappraisal in euthymic BD patients

From: Deficits in explicit emotion regulation in bipolar disorder: a systematic review

Study Age Medication use Paradigm Dependent variables Results behavioral Results neural
Kanske et al. (2015) Adults Yes Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative, positive
Participants:
BD-I, euthymic (n = 22)
HC (N = 22)
Behavioral:
Self-report during and after the task
Neural:
fMRI, PPI
Regions of interest:
Bilateral OFC, dorsolateral (DLPFC, middle frontal) and dorsomedial prefrontal (DMPFC, superior medial), anterior cingulate (ACC), and parietal cortex (inferior, superior)
PPI seed:
Amygdala
PPI targets:
OFC, dorsolateral (DLPFC, middle frontal) and dorsomedial prefrontal (DMPFC, superior medial), anterior cingulate (ACC) and parietal cortex (inferior, superior)
Rating after the experiment:
NS
Viewing:
NS
Reappraisal:
NS
Viewing:
NS
Reappraisal vs. viewing:
Amygdala: BD-I > HC
Parahippocampal: BD-I > HC
PPI during reappraisal:
Left amygdala/right OFC
HC negative connectivity, BD-I positive connectivity
Left amygdala/ventral ACC:
HC negative connectivity, BD-I positive connectivity
Right amygdala/right OFC
HC negative connectivity, BD-I positive connectivity
Corbalán et al. (2015) Adults Yes Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative
Participants:
BD-I, euthymic (n = 19)
HC (n = 17)
Behavioral:
Self-report
Behavioral
fMRI
Regions of interest:
Whole brain
NS Viewing negative:
VLPFC: BD-I > HC
Reappraisal negative:
VLPFC: BD-I > HC
Reappraisal negative vs. viewing negative:
Amygdala: BD-I > HC
Townsend et al. (2013) Adults Yes Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative
Participants:
BD-I, euthymic (n = 30)
HC (n = 26)
Neural:
fMRI
Regions of interest:
Bilateral amygdala
PPI seed:
Bilateral amygdala
PPI target:
Whole brain (and a priori VLPFC)
No affect related behavioral data was reported Viewing negative vs. viewing neutral:
HC vs. BD-I: NS
Reappraisal Negative vs. Viewing Negative:
Amygdala: HC vs. BD-I: n.s. differences
Bilateral VLPFC: HC > BD-I
Insula: HC > BD-I
Bilateral MFG: HC > BD-I
Bilateral cingulate: HC > BD-I
pre-SMA: HC > BD-I
PPI Seed: Left amygdala
Negative Functional connectivity
Left VLPFC: HC > BD-I
Left occipital gyrus: HC > BD-I
Right posterior cingulate: HC > BD-I
PPI Seed: Right amygdala:
Negative functional connectivity
Right MFG: BD-I > HC
Zhang et al. (2018) Adults Yes Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative
Participants:
BD patients,euthymic (n = 23), (2 currently depressed)
HC (n = 17)
Behavioral:
Self-report
Neural:
fMRI, DCM
VOI:
DLPFC, left VLPFC, and left amygdala
ER and emotion reactivity:
NS
GLM contrasts:
NS
DCM:
DLPFC to Amygdala during reappraisal: BD < HC
Gruber et al. (2014) Adults Yes Task:
Film clips
Valence:
Negative, positive
Participants:
BD-I, remitted (n = 23)
HC (n = 23)
Behavioral:
Self-report, analysis of facial expression
Physiological measures:
Skin conductivity and Respiratory sinus arrhythmia
Uninstructed vs. Reappraisal:
NS
X
Kjærstad et al. (2016) Adults Yes Tasks:
Social scenarios task,
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative
Participants:
BD-I, full or partial remitted (n = 9)
BD-II, full or partial remitted (n = 11)
Depression, full or partial remitted (n = 20)
HC (n = 20)
Behavioral:
Self-report
Emotion reactivity:
NS
Social Scenarios/dampen:
Negative: BD < HC
Positive: NS
Picture task/reappraisal:
NS
X
Rive et al. (2015) Adults No Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative, positive
Participants:
BD-I/BD-II, remitted (n = 26)
HC (n = 36)
Behavioral:
Self-report
Neural:
fMRI
Regions of interest:
Amygdala, thalamus, insula, DLPFC, ACC, medial PFC, and hippocampus
ER success in remitted groups across all emotions:
BDr < HC
Regulate vs. viewing across emotions:
DLPFC: NS
  1. ACC anterior cingulate cortex, BD bipolar disorder, DCM dynamic causal modeling, DLPFC dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DMPFC dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging, HC healthy controls, HPS hypomanic personality scale, OFC orbitofrontal cortex, PFC prefrontal cortex, PPI psychophysiological interaction, VLPFC ventrolateral prefrontal cortex