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Table 1 The original 12 epidemiological studies reported by Van Meter et al. (2011)

From: ‘Pediatric Bipolar Disorder’ rates are still lower than claimed: a re-examination of eight epidemiological surveys used by an updated meta-analysis

Source study
Subjects
Location
Year completed
Criteria
Instrument
Prevalence period
Age
Informant
Van Meter et al
2011
Van Meter et al. (2019a) Parry et al. (2018)
PBD
%
BD-I
%
BD-I & BD-II
%
Bipolar
Spectrum
%
BD-I
%
Total Bipolar Spectrum
%
Kim-Cohen et al. 2003
N = 973
New Zealand
1985
DSM-III
DISC
12 mth
Not asked or Adult age 21
1.8 N/A N/A N/A 0 or N/A 0 or N/A
Verhulst et al. 1997
N = 780
The Netherlands
1993
DSM-III-R
DISC
6 mth
13–18 years
Parent & adolescent
2.8 added 1.2 parent 1.2 parent N/R 1.9 added
0 agreement
2.8 added
0 agreement
Canals et al. 1997
N = 290
Spain
1994
ICD-10, DSM-IV
SCAN
Point
17–18 years
Adolescent
2.4 ICD N/R 0 DSM N/R 0 DSM
0 ICD
0 DSM
2.4 ICD
Lynch et al. 2006
N = 723
Republic of Ireland
2002
DSM-IV
K-SADS
Lifetime
12–15 years
Parent & adolescent
0 0 0 0 0 0
Benjet et al. 2009
N = 3,005
Mexico City
2005
DSM-IV
CIDI
12 mth
12–17 years
Adolescent
2.5 2.0 N/R 2.5 2.05 2.5
Stringaris et al. 2010
N = 5,326
United Kingdom
2007
DSM-IV
DAWBA
Lifetime
Parent & adolescent
8–19 years
1.2 N/R 0.1 1.2 parent 0.1aadded
0.04aagreement
2.6 added
0.04 agreement
8–15 years      0.03a added
0a agreement
  
16–19 years      0.4a added
0.1a agreement
  
Kashani et al. 1987
N = 150
Missouri
1986
DSM-III
DICA
Lifetime
14–16 years
Parent & adolescent
0.7 0.7 N/R N/R 0.7
0b
0.7
2%b (all cyclothymia)
Lewinsohn et al. 1995
N = 1,709
Oregon
1988
DSM-III-R/DSM-IV
K-SADS
Lifetime
14–18 years
Adolescent
6.7c 0.1 0.8 6.7 0.1 1.0
Costello et al. 1996
N = 1,015
Nth Carolina
1994
DSM-III-R
CAPA
3 mth
9–13 years
Parent & adolescent
0.1 added 0 0.1 N/R 0 0.1 added
Andrade et al. 2006
N = 619
Hawaii
1994
DSM-III-R
DISC
Lifetime
13–21 years
Adolescent
1.5 N/R 1.5 “Mania-hypomania” N/R Part of 1.4 1.4 “Mania-hypomania”
Gould et al. 1998
N = 1,285
USA
1996
DSM-III-R
DISC
6 mth
9–17 years
Parent & child/adolescent
1.3 1.2 N/R N/R Possibly less than 1.2
(“mania” may include hypomania)
1.2
Kessler et al. 2009
N = 347
USA
2003
DSM-IV
K-SADS, CIDI
Lifetime
13–17 years
Adolescent
6.3 K-SADS 0.5 2.3 6.6 0.5 K-SADS
1.0 CIDI
6.2 K-SADS
6.6 CIDI
  1. aIncludes BD-I plus BD-II
  2. b Carlson & Kashani (1988) reviewed data concluded 3 adolescents had cyclothymia
  3. c BD-NOS cases of 5.7% failed to continue as bipolar cases in young adult follow-up (Lewinshohn et al. 2000)