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Table 2 The eight extra epidemiological studies reported on by Van Meter et al. (2019a)

From: ‘Pediatric Bipolar Disorder’ rates are still lower than claimed: a re-examination of eight epidemiological surveys used by an updated meta-analysis

Source
Subjects
Location
Year completed
Criteria
Instrument
Prevalence period
Age
Informant
Critique
Van Meter et al. (2019a) Parry et al. (2020) – this paper
BD-I % Undifferentiated
BD-I %/BD-II %
Total Bipolar Spectrum % BD-I % Total Bipolar Spectrum %
Päären et al. 2014
N = 2,300
Sweden
1991-1993
DSM-III-R
BDI-C
CES-DC
Attempted Suicide
DICA-R-A
Lifetime
16–17 years
Youth report only.
Methodology does not allow for accurate community prevalence.
Two stage screening with depression questionnaires followed by a diagnostic interview for hypomania.
0.04 - 4.0 1/2,300 = 0.04% fulfilled criteria for a manic episode. Hypomania spectrum: 90/2,300 = 3.9%; (full 1.7%, brief 0.8%, sub-syndromal 1.4%).
Total bipolar spectrum = 3.94%
Adult follow-up 15 years later:
Sole adolescent BD-I case not reported.
2/64 (3%) adolescent hypomania spectrum developed mania/adult BD-I.
3/130(2%) adolescent MDD developed mania/adult BD-I.
Adult follow-up 15 years later:
4/64 (6%) adolescent hypomania spectrum had hypomania/BD-II in adulthood. Total bipolar spectrum = 9% of this cohort.
13/130 (10%) adolescent MDD had hypomania/BD-II in adulthood. Total bipolar spectrum = 12% of this cohort.
Tijssen et al. 2010
N = 1,395 or 705
Germany
1994
Follow-up 1996, 2002
DSM-IV
DIA-X/M-CIDI
Lifetime
14–17 years
Youth report only.
37 cases in 1,395 identified as at least 4 days hypomanic/manic lifetime symptoms, but these excluded from follow-up cohort of 705, as study focused on development of new symptoms.
- 2.7 14.3 Not defined 37/1,395 = 2.65%
8-year follow-up of cohort of 705 adolescents excluding 37 original total bipolar spectrum subjects: No further episodes hypomania/mania emerged, many manic and depressive symptoms, authors don't define cases.
Roberts et al. 2007
N = 4,175
Texas, USA
2000
DSM-IV
DISC-IV
12 mth
11–17 years
Youth report only for diagnosis.
Divided results according to whether impairment criteria of DISC-IV or CGAS were applied or not.
0.4 1.2 - 0.39 (with/out impairment)
0.31 (DISC impairment)
0.22 (CGAS impairment)
1.2 (with/out impairment)
0.31 (DISC impairment)
0.31 (CGAS impairment)
Kozloff et al. 2010
N = 5,673
Canada
2002
DSM-IV
CIDI
Lifetime
15–24 years
Youth report only.
Diagnoses on DSM-IV criteria but more liberal duration criteria of “several days or longer”.
2.0 - - Not defined All ages 15–24 years
15–18 years
19–24 years
3.0
2.1
3.8
Anselmi et al. 2009
N = 4,452
Brazil
2005-2006 
DSM-IV/   ICD-10
DAWBA
[Estimated prevalence reads as cases in diagnostic phase. Formula in stats section]
11–12 years
Child plus mother informants combined with psychiatrist adjudication where discrepant. 0 - - 0 0
Pan et al. 2014
N = original sample = 9,937;
final sample = 1554 high-risk + 958 random-selection = 2512
Brazil
2009 screening 
2010-2011
DSM-IV
DAWBA
Lifetime
6–12 years
Parents of 9937 6–12-year-old children interviewed Family History Survey.
A sample of 2512 random + high-risk children selected for parent interview DAWBA.
Parent/caregiver only informant.
‘Exuberant’ hypomanic symptoms not associated with impairment or psychopathology.
‘Under-control’ hypomanic symptoms overlap with ADHD and ODD/ CD.
- 0.2 1.8 0.2 (BD-I/ BD-II)
0.2a
1.8
1.4a
Vizard et al. 2018
N = 9,117
England
2017
ICD-10
DAWBA
Lifetime
2–19 years
2–4-year-old (parent)
5–10-year-old (parent + teacher)
11–16-year-old (parent + youth + teacher)
17–19-year-old (parent + youth)
0.1 - - Not definedb 0.0 (5–16-year-olds)
0.1 (17–19-year-olds)
NB by age/gender the two groups with cases were 11–16-year-old boys (0.1%)c and 17–19-year-old girls (0.3%)
Karacetin et al. 2018
N = 5,842
Turkey K-SADS-PL
Lifetime
2014–2015 Turkish school year
7–10 years
Parent only 0 0 0 0 0
  1. a“Weighted prevalence” – personal communication Pan-Parry (2019)
  2. bICD-10 F-30/F-31 codes include “mania/hypomania/BD-I/BD-II/BD-undifferentiated”
  3. cPersonal communication Ford-Parry (2019) indicated “youngest case bipolar spectrum disorder was 16-years-old”