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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of help-seeking adolescents and young adults completing the diagnostic process with vs without BD at-risk/manifest BD status (N = 582)

From: Early detection of bipolar disorders and treatment recommendations for help-seeking adolescents and young adults: Findings of the Early Detection and Intervention Center Dresden

  Not at-risk for and no manifest mania/ Bipolar Disorder (N = 433) At-risk for or manifest mania/ Bipolar Disorder (N = 149) Group differences P-value
  M SD M SD t  
Age 24.9 6.4 24.1 4.6 1.336 0.182
  N % N % Chi2
Sex  
 Female 194 44.9 85 57.0 6.541 0.011
Education       
 Studies not finished (yet) 41 10.9 9 7.1 13.663 0.008
 9th or 10th grade 142 37.8 37 29.4   
 a-level 141 37.5 70 55.6   
 University level 41 10.9 9 7.1   
 No educational degree 11 2.9 1 0.8   
First contact to the health care system for present symptoms       
 General practitioner or specialist physician 99 37.1 42 45.2 3.607 0.307
 Counselling center 46 17.2 17 18.3   
 Early Recognition Center 117 43.8 31 33.3   
 Other 5 1.9 3 3.2   
Substance use       
 Nicotine usea 138 35.6 64 45.4 4.228 0.040
 Alcohola 95 24.7 49 34.8 5.271 0.022
 Cannabis usea 145 37.6 78 55.3 13.33  < 0.001
 Amphetamine useb 48 12.4 23 16.3 1.332 0.249
 Hallucinogen useb 24 6.2 18 12.8 6.038 0.014
 Cocaine useb 21 5.4 12 8.5 1.697 0.193
Diagnoses according to DSM-IV (current or lifetime)
 Mental/behavioral dis. due to psychoactive substance use (F1x.x) 49 11.3 26 17.4 3.715 0.054
  Mental/behavioral dis. due to use of alcohol (F10.x) 20 4.6 20 13.4 13.424  < 0.001
  Mental/behavioral dis. due to use of cannabis (F12.x) 20 4.6 12 8.1 2.517 0.113
 Mood (Affective) Disorders (3x.x) 175 40.4 108 72.5 45.632  < 0.001
  Manic episode/Bipolar affective disorder (wo Hypomania) (F30.x-F31.x) 0 0.0 24 16.1 72.745  < 0.001
  Depressive episode (F32.x) 80 18.5 27 18.1 0.009 0.923
  Recurrent depressive disorder (F33.x) 79 18.2 51 34.2 16.325  < 0.001
  Persistent mood (affective) disorders (F34.x) 25 5.8 6 4.0 0.671 0.413
 Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (F4x.x) 136 31.4 42 28.2 0.542 0.462
  Phobic anxiety disorders and other anxiety disorders (F40.x-F41.x) 99 22.9 31 20.8 0.271 0.603
  Obsessive–compulsive disorder (F42.x) 16 3.7 6 4.0 0.034 0.855
  Reaction to severe stress, adjustment disorder (F43.x) 23 5.3 8 5.4 0001 0.979
 Eating disorders (F50x) 8 1.8 10 6.7 8.750 0.003
 Specific, mixed & other personality disorders (F60.x-F61.x) 18 4.2 9 6.0 0.889 0.346
 ADHD/ hyperkinetic disorderc(F90.x) 13 3.0 15 10.1 12.082 0.001
Comorbidity of above mentioned diagnoses
 0 147 33.9 22 14.8 34.884  < 0.001
 1 194 44.8 62 41.6   
 2 +  92 21.2 65 43.6   
History of child psychiatric treatment 35 8.1 24 16.1 7.835 0.005
 Outpatient 20 4.6 11 7.4 1.679 0.195
 Inpatient 19 4.4 18 12.1 11.019 0.001
History of psychiatric treatment/ psychotherapy 197 45.5 79 53.0 2.517 0.113
 Outpatient 149 34.4 66 44.3 4.649 0.031
 Inpatient 96 22.2 35 23.5 0.111 0.739
History of medication treatment
 Antidepressant 91 21.0 39 26.2 1.700 0.192
 Mood stabilizer 4 0.9 4 2.7 2.535 0.111
 Antipsychotic 60 13.9 12 8.1 3.444 0.063
  1. N number, % percentage, M mean, SD standard deviation, Chi2Chi-square, t t-test, p p-value,
  2. anever, once, sporadically vs. frequently; bnever, once vs.sporadically, frequently; cincluding anamnestic information;