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Table 3 Treatment history and treatment recommendation of the service for subjects in the four pre-defined groups (three BD at-risk and one manifest mania/BD) (N = 149)

From: Early detection of bipolar disorders and treatment recommendations for help-seeking adolescents and young adults: Findings of the Early Detection and Intervention Center Dresden

  Group 1
AR
(N = 21)
Group 2
AR + LD
(N = 49)
Group 3
AR + (H)MR
(N = 55)
Group 4
M/BD
(N = 24)
Group differences with Bonferroni correction (significant results, only)a p-value Group differences for planned contrasts representing increasing risk for BD (significant results, only)a p-value
  N % N % N % N %     
History of child psychiatric treatment 3 14.3 6 12.2 11 20.0 4 16.7     
 Outpatient 2 9.5 2 4.1 4 7.3 3 12.5     
 Inpatient 2 9.5 5 10.2 9 16.4 2 8.3     
History of psychiatric treatment/ psychotherapy 10 47.6 25 51.0 29 52.7 15 62.5     
 Outpatient 8 38.1 22 44.9 24 43.6 12 50.0     
 Inpatient 4 19.0 9 18.4 13 23.6 9 37.5    G1 + G2 + G3 vs G4: Chi2 = 3.124 0.077
History of medication treatment    
 Antidepressant 3 14.3 13 26.5 12 21.8 11 45.8    G1 + G2 + G3 vs G4: Chi2 = 5.722 0.017
 Mood stabilizer 1 4.8 1 2.0 1 1.8 1 4.2     
 Antipsychotic 2 9.5 2 4.1 3 5.5 5 20.8    G1 + G2 + G3 vs G4: Chi2 = 6.310 0.012
Treatment recommendation of service  
 Psychotherapy (outpatient) 9 42.9 36 73.5 24 43.6 9 37.5 G1 vs G2: Chi2 = 6.000
G2 vs G3: Chi2 = 9.499
G2 vs G4: Chi2 = 8.815
0.084
0.012
0.018
G2 + G3 vs G3 + G4: Chi2 = 7.541 0.024
 Psychiatrist (outpatient) 2 9.5 21 42.9 10 18.2 9 37.5 G1 vs G2: Chi2 = 7.404
G2 vs G3: Chi2 = 7.541
0.042
0.036
  
 Psychiatric institutional outpatients' department (PIA) 1 4.8 8 16.3 10 18.2 12 50.0 G1 vs G4: Chi2 = 11.157
G2 vs G4: Chi2 = 9.183
G3 vs G4: Chi2 = 8.419
0.006
0.012
0.024
G1 vs G2 + G3 + G4: Chi2 = 3.819
G1 + G2 vs G3 + G4: Chi2 = 5.062
G1 + G2 + G3 vs G4: Chi2 = 14.799
0.051
0.024
 < 0.001
 Inpatient treatment 2 9.5 9 18.4 10 18.2 4 16.7     
Recommended medication of service
 Antidepressant 0 0.0 17 34.7 4 7.3 1 4.2 G1 vs G2: Chi2 = 9.623
G2 vs G3: Chi2 = 12.091
G2 vs G4: Chi2 = 8.081
0.012
0.006
0.024
G1 vs.G2 + G3 + G4: Chi2 = 4.235
G1 + G2vsG3 + G4: Chi2 = 9.509
0.040
0.002
 Mood stabilizer 0 0.0 3 6.1 5 9.1 9 37.5 G1 vs G2: Chi2 = 9.844
G2 vs G4: Chi2 = 11.547
G3 vs G4: Chi2 = 9.249
0.012
0.006
0.012
G1 vs G2 + G3 + G4: Chi2 = 3.148
G1 + G2 vs G3 + G4: Chi2 = 6.629
G1 + G2 + G3 vs G4: Chi2 = 19.267
0.076
0.010
 < 0.001
 Antipsychotic 2 9.5 0 0.0 3 5.5 1 4.2     
  1. N number, % percentage, M mean, SD standard deviation, Chi2Chi-square, t t-test, p p-value, n.a. not applicable, AR at-risk for bipolar disorder, LD lifetime depression, (h)MR (Hypo-)Mania Risk State, M/BD Manifest Mania/ Bipolar Disorder, G1: group 1, G2: group 2, G3: group 3, G4: group 4.
  2. aFor reason of clarity we decided to present significant results only.
  3. Statistics for non-significant results are available on request to inform future meta-analyses