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Table 4 Results of a model using age, sex, baseline PHQ-9 score and chronotype to predict the number of depressive episodes during the follow up period as derived from the LIFE interview

From: Late chronotype predicts more depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder over a 5 year follow-up period

  Rate ratio [95% CI]
Age (years) Sex (male) PHQ-9 Early chronotype Late chronotype
Depression 0.997
[0.992–1.001]
0.961
[0.848–1.090]
1.051
[1.043–1.059]
0.984
[0.825–1.173]
0.946
[0.796–1.124]
  1. Females and normal chronotype were used as reference groups
  2. Bold RRs are significant at p < 0.01