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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of women with non-postpartum recurrence during follow-up and of women with no recurrence outside the postpartum period during follow-up

From: Long-term outcome of postpartum psychosis: a prospective clinical cohort study in 106 women

  Non-postpartum recurrence
n = 34
No recurrence outside the postpartum period
n = 72
p-value
Baseline characteristics at time of initial episode  
 Age in years Mean = 31.0 SD = 4.8 Mean = 31.9 SD = 4.9 0.351
 Country of origin (n)      
  Netherlands 79.4% 27 94.4% 68 0.018
  Other 20.6% 7 5.6% 4
 Marital status (n)      
  Married or in relationship 100.0% 34 91.6% 66 0.217
  Not in relationship - - 4.2% 3
  Missing - - 4.2% 3
 Education (n)      
  No education 3.0% 1 0.521
  Primary school 1.4% 1
  Secondary school 14.7% 5 9.7% 7
  Vocational training 29.4% 10 30.6% 22  
  Higher education 52.9% 18 58.3% 42  
 Parity (n)      
  1 79.4% 27 79.2% 57 0.343
  2 11.8% 4 16.7% 12
   ≥ 3 8.8% 3 2.8% 2
  Missing 1.4% 1
 Psychiatric history before postpartum episode (n)      
  None 55.9% 19 76.4% 55 0.210
  Postpartum depression 8.8% 3 2.8% 2
  Postpartum psychosis/mania (not at other times) 8.8% 3 5.6% 4
  Depression 20.6% 7 9.7% 7
  Anxiety 5.9% 2 2.8% 2
  Hypomania 2.8% 2
  Family history of psychiatric disorders (n)      
  None 47.1% 16 34.7% 25 0.238
  1st degree relative with depression or anxiety 41.2% 14 36.1% 26 0.616
  1st degree relative with postpartum psychiatric episode 2.9% 1 13.9% 10 0.085
  1st degree relative with bipolar disorder 8.8% 3 13.9% 10 0.444
  Missing 2.9% 1 4.2% 3 0.745
  Length of initial hospital admission in days Mean = 59.6 SD = 25.6 Mean = 57.3 SD = 31.2 0.700
 Phenomenology initial episode (n)      
  Manic with and without psychotic features 58.8% 20 61.1% 44 0.533
  Psychotic only 17.7% 6 12.5% 9
Depressed-psychotic 5.8% 2 13.9% 10
  Manic-depressed (mixed) 17.7% 6 12.5% 9
 Relation between mood and psychotic symptoms (n)      
  Presence of mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms 67.6% 23 62.5% 45 0.611
   > 50% of time psychotic during initial episodes 52.9% 18 47.2% 34 0.596
  First rank psychotic symptoms 8.8% 3 6.9% 5 0.730
 DSM-IV diagnosis at baseline      
  Bipolar I disorder 82.3% 28 77.8% 56 0.600
  Bipolar II disorder 2.9% 1 1.4% 1 0.597
  Major Depressive Disorder with Psychotic Features 2.9% 1 11.1% 8 0.159
  Mood disorders NOS 8.8% 3 9.7% 7 0.883
 Lithium treatment during admission (n)      
  No 20.6% 7 25.0% 18 0.617
  Yes 79.4% 27 75.0% 54
 Antipsychotics treatment during admission (n)      
  No 14.7% 5 18.1% 13 0.668
  Yes 85.3% 29 81.1% 59
Follow-up  
 Length of follow-up period in months Mean = 46.3 SD = 20.3 Mean = 44.5 SD = 8.8 0.543
 Subsequent pregnancies (n)      
  No 64.7% 22 58.3% 42 0.464
  Yes 32.3% 11 40.3% 29
  Missing 3.0% 1 1.4% 1
 Recurrence period (n)      
  Postpartum only 3.0 2  < 0.001
  Non-postpartum only 90.9% 30 - -
  Postpartum and non-postpartum 9.1% 3
 Recurrence phenomenology (n)      
  No recurrence 97.2% 70  < 0.001
Hypo(mania) 42.4% 13  
  Depression/Anxiety 33.3% 11 2.8*% 2*
Psychotic episode without affective components 15.2% 5
  Schizoaffective disorder 9.1% 4
 DSM-IV diagnosis at follow-up      
  Bipolar I Disorder 38.2% 13 4.2% 3  < 0.001
  Major Depressive Disorder 14.7% 5 16.7% 12 0.794
  Anxiety/Panic Disorder 11.8% 4 2.8% 2 0.063
  Brief Psychotic Disorder 11.8% 4 - -  < 0.001
  Psychotic Disorder NOS 2.9% 1 - -  < 0.001
  Schizoaffective Disorder 11.8% 4  < 0.001
  Mood Disorder NOS 2.9% 1  < 0.001
  Cyclothymic Disorder 2.9% 1  < 0.001
  Observation of other suspected mental condition (V71.09) 2.9% 1 75% 54  < 0.001
 Lithium stop in follow-up period (n)      
  No 61.8% 21 45.8% 33 0.126
  Yes 38.2% 13 54.2% 39
Recurrence within 6 months after lithium stop (n)      
  No 23.5% 8  < 0.001
  Yes 14.7% 5
 Lithium treatment at follow-up (n)      
  No 38.2% 13 61.1% 44 0.027
  Yes 61.8% 21 38.9% 28
 Antipsychotics treatment at follow-up (n)      
  No 76.5% 26 94.4% 68 0.006
  Yes 23.5% 8 5.6% 4  
 Still in treatment at follow-up (n)      
  No 20.6% 7 68.0% 49  < 0.001
  Yes 76.5% 26 30.6% 22
  Missing 2.9% 1 1.4% 1
  1. The table presents percentages and numbers of participants, unless stated
  2. Percentages may exceed 100% because these categories are not mutually exclusive
  3. The set of psychotic symptoms recognized as having special weight in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder
  4. *Recurrence in the postpartum period