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Table 1 Study and participant characteristics at baseline

From: Affective lability as a prospective predictor of subsequent bipolar disorder diagnosis: a systematic review

Article Location Clinical Status Age N Sex Recruitment Method Affective Lability measure Affective Lability assessment tool Ascertainment of affective lability
Akiskal et al. 1995 US MDD 17 +  NR NR Sub-population from larger depression study Mood Lability GZTS (emotional stability) + MMPI (neuroticism) combined Self-report
Angst et al. 2003 Switzer-land Non-clinical Range = 19–20
Mean = 20
591 F = 51% Community cohort study Emotional & vegetative lability SCl-90-R Self-report
DeGeorge et al. 2014* US At-risk, clinical, non-clinical Mean = 20
SD = 2
123 F = 69% Introductory Psychology course Cyclothymic/irritable temperament TEMPS-A Self-report
Sperry et al. 2020* 101 Emotion dynamics (positive & negative affect) ESM for PA and NA  
Egeland et al. 2012 US At-risk offspring & non-clinical Most < 14 221 F = 51% Sub-population from larger study (CARE) Mood Lability Interview developed by expert panel Clinician
Gan et al. 2011 China MDD NR 344 F = 62% Hospital archive records, outpatient clinical records Diurnal variation in mood Clinical assessments Self-report
Hafeman et al., 2017 US Non-clinical BD offspring Range = 6–18
Mean = 12
SD = 4
480 NR Advertisement, research studies, outpatient clinics Affective Lability CALS Self-report
Kochman et al. 2005 France MDD Mean = 13 SD = 3 109 NR Child inpatient admissions Cyclothymic-hypersensitive temperament Adapted TEMPS-A cyclothymic scale Self-report
Ratheesh et al. 2015 Australia MDD, anxiety, SUD, ADD Range = 15–25
Mean = 20
SD = 3
70 F = 85% At-risk youth seeking mental health support Cyclothymic temperament TEMPS-A Self-report
Salvatore et al. 2013 Italy, US MDDP Range = 10–82
Mean = 35
SD = 16
500 F = 45% Psychiatric inpatients Affective or psychomotor instability AMDP and BSABS Trained evaluator assessments
Tohen et al. 2012 US MDDP Range = 18–72 Mean = 36
SD = 15
56 F = 50% Inpatient unit Mood lability AMDP + BABS Research assistant
  1. US United states, MDD major depressive disorder, NR not reported, GZTS Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, MMPI-N The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, for Neuroticism, F female, M male, SCl-90-R Symptom Checklist-90-R, SD standard deviation, TEMPS-A Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire, ESM experience sampling method, PA positive affect, NA negative affect, CARE prospective Children and Adolescent Research Evaluation study, SCID Structured clinical interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, BD bipolar disorder, CALS Children’s Affective Lability Scale, SUD substance use disorder, ADD attention deficit disorder, MDDP MDD with psychosis, AMDP Manual for the Assessment and Documentation of Psychopathology, BSABS/BABS Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms
  2. *Sperry et al. 2020 and DeGeorge et al. 2014 are two papers from the same study. Although analyses were conducted for participants without BD at baseline, participant sex and age averages were not provided for the subgroup considered in this review (we report averages from the total sample, which are expected to be comparable)