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Table 1 Background characteristics of participants, n  = 180

From: Voice analyses using smartphone-based data in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected relatives and healthy control individuals, and during different affective states

  Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) Healthy control individuals (HC) Unaffected relatives (UR) p
n, % female 121 (60.0) 38 (45.0) 21 (52.0) p  > 0.16
Age 35.71 (12.35) 31.66 (10.87) 32.29 (10.57) p  > 0.16
Employed, % (n) 17 (20) 50 (19) 57 (12) BD:HC (p  = 0.002)
UR:HC (p  = 0.88)
Student, % (n) 31 (37) 39 (15) 33 (7) p  > 0.42
Unemployed, % (n) 30 (36) 8 (3) 10 (2) BD:HC (p  = 0.001)
UR:HC (p  = 0.76)
Education (years) 13.68 (4.66) 15.58 (1.57) 15.07 (2.62) BD:HC (p  = 0.03)
UR:HC (p  = 0.89)
Bipolar subtype I, % (n) 38 (46) N/A N/A N/A
HAMD at inclusion 10.84 (6.93) 0.95 (1.62) 3.10 (3.32) BD:HC (p  < 0.001)
UR:HC (p  = 0.38)
YMRS at inclusion 3.76 (4.71) 0.51 (0.98) 1.25 (1.92) BD:HC (p  < 0.001)
UR:HC (p  = 0.77)
Previous hospitalizations (number) 4 [1–50] N/A N/A N/A
Previous depressive episodes (number) 10 [1–80] N/A N/A N/A
Previous (hypo)manic episodes (number) 14 [1–182] N/A N/A N/A
Illness duration (years) 14.86 (10.37) N/A N/A N/A
Psychotropic medication
 Anticonvulsant, % (n) 42 (51) N/A N/A N/A
 Lithium, % (n) 48 (58) N/A N/A N/A
 Antipsychotics, % (n) 49 (59) N/A N/A N/A
 Antidepressants, % (n) 18 (22) N/A N/A N/A
  1. Data are mean (SD), median [IQR] or proportions (%, n) unless otherwise stated
  2. HAMD Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-items score
  3. YMRS Young Mania Rating Scale score