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Table 1 Sample characteristics and differences between personality classes

From: The big five model in bipolar disorder: a latent profile analysis and its impact on longterm illness severity

Variable Total sample (N = 134) Class 1: resilient (n = 68) Class 2: vulnerable (n = 55) Class 3: highly vulnerable (n = 11) Statistics
p value Effect size
Bipolar I subtype (% yes) 87 (64.9) 47 (69.1) 34 (61.8) 6 (54.5) 0.675a V = 0.07b
Demographic variables
 Gender (% female) 86 (64.2) 43 (63.2) 35 (63.6) 8 (72.7) 0.892a V = 0.05b
 Years of age—M (SD) 44.3 (13.3) 45.1 (13.5) 43.7 (13.5) 41.9 (10.7) 0.705c ω2 = −0.01
 # Years of education—M (SD) 13.5 (3.2) 13.8 (3.1) 13.4 (3.3) 12.2 (2.8) 0.262d η2 = 0.01
 Employment (% yes) 69 (51.5) 34 (50.0) 30 (54.5) 5 (45.5) 0.797a V = 0.06b
 Relationship Status (% in relationship) 69 (51.5) 37 (54.4) 26 (47.3) 6 (54.5) 0.755a V = 0.07b
Clinical variables
 Substance use (% yes)
  Alcohol 39 (29.1) 21 (30.9) 15 (27.3) 3 (27.3) 1.00a V = .03b
  Drugs 16 (11.9) 8 (11.8) 6 (10.9) 2 (18.2) 0.774a V = 0.06b
 Co-morbidityeM (SD) 0.31 (0.64) 0.2 (0.52) 0.29 (0.52) 1.25 (1.16) 0.002** d η2 = 0.10
 MedicationfM (SD) 1.80 (1.01) 1.78 (1.18) 1.78 (0.85) 2.1 (0.57) 0.326d η2 = 0.00
 Age at onset—M (SD) 27.2 (10.2) 29.3 (9.6) 24.5 (10.2) 27.3 (11.3) 0.023* d η2 = 0.04
 Past episodes—M (SD) 15.4 (16.2) 14.9 (17.9) 16.3 (15.5) 13.6 (10.1) 0.425d η2 = 0.00
Previous rapid cycling (% yes) 27 (20.1) 11 (16.2) 14 (25.5) 2 (18.2) 0.458a V = 0.11b
 #Hospitalizations—M (SD) 3.0 (3.1) 3.0 (2.6) 2.8 (3.4) 4.3 (3.8) 0.314d η2 = 0.00
 Attempted suicide (% yes) 41 (30.6) 19 (27.9) 20 (36.4) 2 (18.2) 0.478a V = 0.12b
NEO-FFI scales—M (SD)
 Neuroticism 1.96 (0.71) 1.44 (0.45) 2.39 (0.42) 3.10 (0.34)  < 0.001*** d η2 = 0.67
 Extraversion 1.99 (0.6) 2.25 (0.48) 1.88 (0.52) 1.0 (0.43)  < 0.001*** d η2 = 0.27
 Openness 2.43 (0.55) 2.36 (0.59) 2.54 (0.46) 2.25 (0.55) 0.103c ω2 = 0.02
 Agreeableness 2.53 (0.43) 2.68 (0.38) 2.45 (0.41) 2.04 (0.43)  < 0.001*** c ω2 = 0.17
 Conscientiousness 2.52 (0.55) 2.85 (0.4) 2.31 (0.41) 1.55 (0.25)  < 0.001*** c ω2 = 0.49
Psychopathology
 HDRS-21, M (SD) 2.92 (2.74) 1.85 (2.17) 3.82 (2.79) 4.50 (3.46)  < 0.001*** η2 = 0.12
 YMRS, M (SD) 1.46 (2.21) 1.94 (2.74) 1.06 (1.49) 0.75 (1.39) 0.384 η2 = 0.00
Morbidity Index—M (SD) 0.44 (0.37) 0.30 (0.31) 0.53 (0.35) 0.9 (0.35)  < 0.001*** d η2 = 0.19
  1. NEO-FFI, NEO Five-Factor Inventory; HDRS-21, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-21; YMRS, Young Mania Rating Scale
  2. aFisher-Freeman-Halton exact test, bCramer’s V, cF(2131), ANOVA, dH(2), Kruskal–Wallis test, asymptotic significance, enumber of co-morbid axis I or II diagnoses, fnumber of current psychotropic medication groups (lithium, anticonvulsants, neuroleptics, and antidepressants)
  3. *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001