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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of subjects

From: Estimated glomerular filtration rate in Korean patients exposed to long-term lithium maintenance therapy

  Lithium (n  = 242) Valproate (n  = 524) p
Age 37.0 ± 14.6 40.4 ± 16.5 0.005
Sex (%)
 Women 134 (55.4) 276 (52.7) 0.536
 Men 108 (44.6) 248 (47.3)  
Baseline hypertension (%) 23 (9.5) 42 (8.1) 0.605
Baseline diabetes (%) 10 (4.1) 17 (3.2) 0.683
Primary psychiatric diagnoses, ICD-10 (%)
 F20–29 (schizophrenia or psychotic disorders) 40 (16.5) 115 (21.9) < 0.001
 F30–F31 (bipolar disorders) 173 (71.5) 252 (48.1)  
 F32–F33 (depressive disorders) 29 (12.0) 157 (30.0)  
eGFR  < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (%) 2 (0.8) 8 (1.5) 0.733
Follow-up duration (year) 4.2 ± 4.2 5.3 ± 5.2 0.002
Cumulative years on lithium treatment 3.5 ± 3.5
Cumulative years on valproate treatment 4.3 ± 4.2
Average TDM
 Lithium TDM 0.6 ± 0.2  
 Valproate TDM 56.7 ± 20.5  
Episodes of lithium toxicity (≥ 1 episode)
 Lithium TDM  > 0.8 mmol/L (%) 112 (46.3)
 Lithium TDM  > 1.0 mmol/L (%) 54 (22.3)
 Lithium TDM  > 1.2 mmol/L (%) 17 (7.0)
Daily dosing schedulea
 Lithium once-daily dosing 0.9 ± 0.2
 Valproate once-daily dosing 0.8 ± 0.4
Yearly median eGFR change (mL/min/1.73 m2) − 1.3 (IQR − 6.8, 1.7) 1.1 (IQR − 4.5, 1.5) 0.389
Baseline eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 103.9 ± 18.2 103.1 ± 18.4 0.533
Last eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 100.9 ± 18.4 100.6 ± 19.0 0.851
Second to last eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 101.9 ± 18.5 101.3 ± 18.2 0.629
Average eGFR values by year (mL/min/1.73 m2)
 Year 1 eGFR 104.6 ± 16.9 103.8 ± 18.1 0.549
 Year 3 eGFR 104.8 ± 15.6 101.4 ± 17.6 0.208
 Year 5 eGFR 99.5 ± 17.2 102.1 ± 17.7 0.507
 Year 7 eGFR 98.0 ± 16.1 98.0 ± 16.2 0.995
 Year 10 eGFR 96.4 ± 15.7 96.9 ± 18.1 0.945
 Year 12 eGFR 95.2 ± 11.5 96.5 ± 15.9 0.842
 Year 15 eGFR 73.7 ± 21.1 99.6 ± 15.6 0.085
 Year 20 eGFR 81.5 ± 21.9
  1. aAverage proportion of once-daily dosing per patient