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Table 1 Sociodemographic, clinical and psychopathological characteristics of the two groups investigated

From: Sleep disturbances in the context of neurohormonal dysregulation in patients with bipolar disorder

  Healthy controls (N = 24) Bipolar disorder (N = 21) p values
Female gender (n, %) 18 (75) 7 (33.34) 0.005
Age (years; mean ± SD) 28.58 (SD = 9.58) 45 (SD = 12.59)  < 0.001
Height (cm; mean ± SD) 170.83 (SD = 7.01) 170.67 (SD = 10.37) 0.94
Weight (kg; mean ± SD) 68.58 (SD = 14.60) 84.52 (SD = 19.83) 0.003
Occupation 24 employed (0% unemployment) 8 employed, 13 unemployed (61.9% unemployment)  
Pre-existing endocrine disease 8.3% (n = 2) 47.6% (n = 10)  
Hypothyroidism (n = 2; 8.3%) Hypothyroidism (n = 9; 42.9%)
  Diabetes mellitus (type 2) (n = 3; 14.3%)
RLS symptoms 8.3% (n = 2) 9.5% (n = 2)  
Regularly taken medication 54.2% (n = 13) 95.2% (n = 20)  
Oral contraceptives (n = 11; 45.8%) Mood stabilizers (n = 20; 95.2%)
Antihistamines (n = 3; 12.5%) Antidepressants (n = 7; 33.3%)
l-Thyroxine (n = 2; 8.3%) Sedative drugs (n = 7; 33.3%)
Isotretinoin (n = 1; 4.2%) l-thyroxine (n = 9; 42.3%)
Triptan (n = 1; 4.2%) Antihypertensive drugs (n = 7; 33.3%)
NSAID (n = 1; 4.2%) Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) (n = 4; 19%)
ß-Blocker (n = 1; 4.2%) Antidiabetics (n = 3; 14.3%)
  Aspirin (n = 1; 4.8%)
HAMD-17 average score 3.00 4.38 0.036
YMRS average score 2.00 1.90 0.847
PSQI average score 3.63 5.52 0.022
RIS average score 5.83 8.90 0.031
  1. NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; RLS, restless legs syndrome