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Table 3 Measurements for executive functions

From: The relations between executive functions and occupational functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder: a scoping review

Measurement Used in Description measurement
BIS-11 Jiménez et al. (2012), O’Donnell (2016) BIS-11 is a self-rated 30-item questionnaire which has three subscales: attentional/cognitive, which measures tolerance to cognitive complexity and persistence; Motor, which measures the tendency to act on the spur of the moment; and Non-planning impulsivity, which measures the lack of sense of the future
The Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT-FAS); category fluency Anaya et al. (2016), Baune et al. (2013), Bearden et al. (2011), Bello (2009), Boland and Alloy (2013), Bowie et al. (2010), Burdick et al. (2010), Chen et al. (2021), Crouse et al. (2020), Demant et al. (2015a, b), Depp et al. (2012b), Drakopoulos et al. (2020), Godard et al. (2011), Esan et al. (2020)a; Jensen et al. (2015, 2016), Latalova et al. (2010), Lee et al. (2013, 2015), Levy et al. (2013), Lewandowski et al. (2020); Lomastro et al. (2020), Luo et al. (2020), Martinez-Aran et al. (2007), Miguélez-Pan et al. (2014), Mora et al. (2013), Mur et al. (2008, 2009), O’Donnell (2016), O’Donnell et al. (2017), Olley et al. (2005), Ryan et al. (2013), Sachs et al. (2020), Simonsen et al. (2010); Solé et al. (2012, 2018), Strassnig et al. (2017), Tabarés-Seisdedos et al. (2008), Torrent et al. (2007, 2013), Varo et al. (2017), Wingo et al. (2010), Zubieta et al. (2001), Zyto et al. (2016) The Controlled Oral Word Association Test, is considered to be a measure of spontaneous word fluency and is believed to be subserved by executive or prefrontal cortical functioning
Delis–Kaplan executive function system (D-KEFS) Drakopoulos et al. (2020) Assesses key components of executive functions within verbal and spatial modalities
The Inter-Dimensional/Extra-Dimensional Shift (ID/ED Shift), Stockings of Cambridge (SOC), (CANTAB) Lee et al. (2015), Olley et al. (2005) The Inter-Dimensional/Extra-Dimensional Shift (ID/ED Shift), a test of abstract problem solving and attentional set-shifting, is similar to the widely used Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) The Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) task, a complex problem solving and planning task akin to the Tower of London
Executive Interview (EXIT) Altshuler et al. (2007) The EXIT is a 15-min structured interview that correlates well with other measures of executive cognitive function and can be administered by lay personnel. The EXIT contains items that tap into a variety of executive cognitive domains, including perseveration, response set-switching, generation de novo of stories, generation of word lists, and executing tasks during interference
Stroop Colour–Word Interference Test (SCWT) Anaya et al. (2016), Baune et al. (2013), Bonnín et al. (2010, 2014), Dickerson et al. (2010), Kaya et al. (2007), Liu et al. (2021), Luo et al. (2020), Martinez-Aran et al. (2007), Miguélez-Pan et al. (2014), Mora et al. (2013), Mur et al. (2008, (2009), O’Donnell (2016), O’Donnell et al. (2017), Olley et al. (2005), Rosa et al. (2014), Ryan et al. (2013), Simonsen et al. (2010); Solé et al. (2012, 2018), Strassnig et al. (2017), Tabarés-Seisdedos et al. (2008), Torrent et al. (2007, 2013), van Rheenen and Rossell (2014), Varo et al. (2017), Vierck and Joyce (2015), Zubieta et al. (2001), Zyto et al. (2016) The Stroop Colour–Word Interference Test is a test of cognitive inhibition
TMT-B Baune et al. (2013), Bearden et al. (2011), Bello (2009), Bonnín et al. (2010), Bonnín et al. (2014), Bowie et al. (2010), Burdick et al. (2010), Crouse et al. (2020), Demant et al. (2015a, b), Dickerson et al. (2004, 2010), Drakopoulos et al. (2020), Forcada et al. (2015), Fulford (2011), Latalova et al. (2010), Lee et al. (2013), Levy et al. (2013), Lomastro et al. (2020), Luo et al. (2020), Martinez-Aran et al. (2007), Miguélez-Pan et al. (2014), Mora et al. (2013), Mur et al. (2008), Mur et al. (2009), O’Donnell (2016), O’Donnell et al. (2017), Ryan et al. (2013), Solé et al. (2012, 2018), Strassnig et al. (2017), Tabarés-Seisdedos et al. (2008), Torrent et al. (2007, 2013), van Rheenen and Rossell (2014), Varo et al. (2017), Wilder-Willis (2001), Wingo et al. (2010), Zyto et al. (2016) The Trail Making Test B or Trails B is considered a task of visual search, visuospatial sequencing, and cognitive set shifting
Digit Span (DS) subtest of subtest of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Anaya et al. (2016), Boland and Alloy (2013), Boland et al. (2015), Bonnín et al. (2010), Chen et al. (2021)b; Depp et al. (2012b), Leany (2011), Luo et al. (2020), Mora et al. (2013), Mur et al. (2008), O’Donnell (2016), O’Shea et al. (2010), Zyto et al. (2016) Digit Span involves attentional processes of being able to hold sequences of strings of numbers in working memory and reiterate the sequences in the auditory channel
Letter Number Sequencing (LNS) subtest of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Anaya et al. (2016), Bearden et al. (2011), Bowie et al. (2010), Demant et al. (2015b), Depp et al. (2012b), Dickerson et al. (2010), Jensen et al. (2015, 2016), Lewandowski et al. 2020; Rosa et al. (2014), Strassnig et al. (2017), Torrent et al. (2013), Varo et al. (2017), Wingo et al. (2010) The pt is read a series of letters and numbers and is required to repeat them back with the letters in alphabetical order and the numbers in numerical order. The test was designed to measure an individual’s ability to hold verbal information in memory while he/she manipulates it
Parametric GO/NO-GO test O’Donnell (2016), O’Donnell et al. (2017), Ryan et al. (2013) The PGNG consists of three levels of difficulty assessing attention, set shifting, and processing speed, with the two more difficult levels assessing inhibitory control
WMS-III Spatial Span Subtest Leany (2011), Lewandowski et al. (2020) The SST measures an individual’s ability to hold a visual spatial sequence of locations in working memory and reproduce the sequence, thereby being a measure of visual working memory
TOL Boland et al. (2015), Chen et al. (2021), Drakopoulos et al. (2020), Godard et al. (2011), Miguélez-Pan et al. (2014) The TOL assesses spatial planning by given rules
WCST Bello (2009), Bonnín et al. (2014), Bonnín et al. (2010), Bowie et al. (2010), Burdick et al. (2010), Depp et al. (2012b), Dickerson et al. (2010), Leany (2011), Levy et al. (2013), Lomastro et al. (2020), Martinez-Aran et al. (2007), Miguélez-Pan et al. (2014), Mora et al. (2013), Mur et al. (2008), Mur et al. (2009), O’Donnell (2016), O’Donnell et al. (2017), Ryan et al. (2013), Sachs et al. (2020); Solé et al. (2012), Solé et al. (2018), Tabarés-Seisdedos et al. (2008), Torrent et al. (2007, 2013), Varo et al. (2017), Wilder-Willis (2001), Zubieta et al. (2001), Zyto et al. (2016) A test of executive functioning ability that requires subjects to sort cards, altering the chosen sorting approach based on feedback received at unannounced intervals during the task
  1. aSubtest SKIP
  2. bSubtest BAC-A