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Table 2 Sample characteristics

From: Environmental factors in offspring of parents with mood disorders and their role in parent–child transmission: findings from a 14-year prospective high-risk study

Probands (N = 214) BPD onset < 21 yrs (n = 30) BPD onset > 21 yrs (n = 51) MDD onset < 21 yrs (n = 21) MDD onset > 21 yrs (n = 47) Comparison (n = 65) Statistic p
Socio-demographic factors
 Age (yrs), mean (s.d.) 38.3 (7.3) 41.5 (6.0) 37.9 (5.5) 42.4 (7.8) 41.1 (6.8) F4 = 2.7 0.032
 Female, % 60.0 54.9 71.4 53.2 43.1 χ24 = 6.1 n.s
 Socio-economic status, mean (s.d.)a 3.0 (1.1) 3.3 (1.0) 2.8 (1.1) 2.8 (1.0) 3.4 (1.1) F4 = 2.8 0.025
Non-mood disorders at baseline, %
 Any anxiety disordersb 30.0 29.4 47.6 42.6 6.2 χ24 = 24.9 < 0.001
 Alcohol abuse or dependence 26.7 27.5 33.3 51.1 9.2 χ24 = 24.3 < 0.001
 Illicit substance abuse or dependence 23.3 17.7 9.5 19.2 7.7 χ24 = 5.8 n.s
Spouses (N = 193) Spouses of probands with BPD onset < 21 yrs (n = 27) Spouses of probands with BPD onset > 21 yrs (n = 46) Spouses of probands with MDD onset < 21 yrs (n = 17) Spouses of probands with MDD onset > 21 yrs (n = 42) Spouses of comparison probands (n = 61)   
Socio-demographic factors
 Age (yrs), mean (s.d.) 40.8 (9.0) 43.1 (7.7) 44.3 (8.0) 42.4 (6.2) 43.1 (7.9) F4 = 0.7 n.s
Femalec, % 40.0 45.1 28.6 46.8 56.9 χ24 = 6.1 n.s
Interviewedc (%) 50.0 60.8 42.9 53.2 66.2 χ24 = 5.1 n.s
Spouse’s disorders at baseline, %
 Any bipolar disorder 11.1 6.5 5.9 9.5 1.6 χ24 = 4.1 n.s
 Any depressive disorder 22.2 34.8 41.2 28.6 29.5 χ24 = 2.3 n.s
 Any anxiety disordersb 29.6 10.9 17.7 23.8 14.8 χ24 = 5.4 n.s
 Alcohol abuse or dependence 18.5 23.9 35.3 23.8 6.6 χ24 = 10.6 < 0.05
 Illicit substance abuse or dependence 7.4 4.4 0 11.9 3.3 χ24 = 5.0 n.s
Offspring (N = 388) Offspring of probands with BPD onset < 21 yrs (n = 52) Offspring of probands with BPD onset > 21 yrs (n = 95) Offspring of probands with MDD onset < 21 yrs (n = 40) Offspring of probands with MDD onset > 21 yrs (n = 82) Offspring of comparison probands (n = 119)   
Socio-demographic factors
 Age at first follow-up (yrs), mean (s.d.) 8.6 (5.1) 10.9 (4.1) 8.8 (3.4) 10.7 (3.9) 9.3 (4.8) F4 = 2.2 n.s
 Age at last follow-up (yrs), mean (s.d.) 21.6 (7.3) 26.7 (5.6) 21.7 (4.4) 23.5 (6.4) 23.6 (6.8) F4 = 4.0 0.004
 Girls, % 61.5 47.4 67.5 45.1 46.2 χ24 = 9.4 n.s
 Number of assessments (%) 4.9 (1.7) 5.6 (1.6) 4.7 (1.1) 4.7 (1.6) 5.4 (1.6) F4 = 6.0 < 0.001
 Number of direct interviews (%) 3.8 (1.8) 4.8 (1.9) 3.9 (1.4) 3.8 (1.8) 4.2 (1.9) F4 = 4.3 < 0.01
 Duration of follow-up [yrs], mean (s.d.) 13.0 (5.2) 15.8 (4.5) 12.9 (3.3) 12.8 (4.1) 14.3 (4.7) F4 = 6.7 < 0.001
  1. BPD bipolar disorder, MDD major depressive disorder, yrs years, sd standard deviation, n.s. not statistically significant
  2. aA value of 3 represents an SES of III (middle class) on the Hollingshead Scale
  3. bIncludes generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, or agoraphobia
  4. cThis information was derived for 21 spouses with otherwise missing data