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Table 4 Onset of mood episodes or disorders in offspring by preceding individual or familial environmental factors

From: Environmental factors in offspring of parents with mood disorders and their role in parent–child transmission: findings from a 14-year prospective high-risk study

  Mania/hypomania onset in offspring MDD onset in offspringb
Yes No HRa (95% CI) Yes No HRa (95% CI)
%/m (SD) %/m (SD) %/m (SD) %/m (SD)
N = 42 N = 346 N = 181 N = 165
Childhood adversity
 Traumatic events 33.3 19.9 1.3 (0.7, 2.7) 35.4 3.0 2.8*** (2.0, 3.8)
Family environment
 Parental separation 78.6 60.4 2.2° (1.0, 4.7) 65.2 55.2 1.1 (0.8, 1.6)
 Family cohesion 34.8 (5.0) 34.7 (7.9) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 35.1 (8.1) 34.5 (7.9) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)
Parental attitudes
 Proband
  Care 28.5 (5.2) 28.9 (6.0) 1.0 (0.6, 1.5) 28.9 (6.1) 28.8 (6.0) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2)
  Denial of autonomy 4.3 (3.2) 5.2 (3.9) 1.0 (0.6, 1.5) 5.1 (3.7) 5.4 (4.1) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3)
  Encouragement of freedom 13.6 (2.3) 12.4 (3.6) 1.0 (0.6, 1.5) 12.9 (3.8) 12.2 (3.5) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3)
 Spouse
  Care 27.6 (4.3) 28.3 (6.9) 1.1 (0.7, 1.7) 28.2 (6.9) 28.4 (6.9) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3)
  Denial of autonomy 5.2 (3.4) 5.2 (4.0) 1.1 (0.7, 1.6) 5.2 (4.1) 5.3 (4.0) 1.1 (0.8, 1.3)
  Encouragement of freedom 13.4 (2.9) 12.4 (3.4) 1.1 (0.7, 1.6) 12.8 (3.2) 12.2 (3.6) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3)
  1. Statistically significant values are in bold
  2. MDD major depressive disorder, m mean value, SD standard deviation, HR hazard ratios, 95% CI 95% confidence intervals
  3. ***p < 0.001
  4. **p < 0.01
  5. °p < 0.1
  6. aOne overall model for the two offspring outcomes with imputations for mediating variables, adjusted for sex and number of assessments in offspring, and SES of the family
  7. bExcluding offspring with mania/hypomania