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Table 1 Overview of cortical thinning studies comparing young patients with psychosis, bipolar disorder and controls

From: Cortical thinning in young psychosis and bipolar patients correlate with common neurocognitive deficits

Author Sample (age, years ± SD) Regions of cortical thinning
White et al. (2003) 42 Childhood/adolescent-onset psychosis (17.7 ± 1.7) • Mean cortical thickness
24 Controls (17.7 ± 2.0) • Frontal, temporal, and parietal sulci; temporal gyri
Narr et al. (2005a, b) 72 First episode psychosis (25.1 ± 4.7) • Frontal, temporal and parietal lobes (significance set at p < 0.05, uncorrected)
78 Controls (27.3 ± 6.6) • Fronto-polar, occipital lobes in patients with little or no prior antipsychotic medication
Rais et al. (2010) 32 Early schizophrenia, non-cannabis users (23.3 ± 5.1) • Same at baseline
19 Early schizophrenia, cannabis users (21.8 ± 3.9) • Five-year follow-up schizophrenia patients: right supplementary motor cortex, inferior frontal  cortex, superior temporal gyrus, angular gyrus, cuneus and postcentral gyrus
31 Controls (24.7 ± 6.7)
Crespo-Facorro et al. (2011) 142 First episode psychosis (29.7 ± 8.7) • Frontal, temporal and parietal lobes (group contrast only, not significant when covarying  for gender)
83 Controls (27.6 ± 7.6)
Jung et al. (2011) 29 Ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis (22.2 ± 4.3) • Mean cortical thickness: (controls = UHR) > schizophrenia
31 Schizophrenia (24.3 ± 4.2) • Schizophrenia vs controls: bilateral insular, inferior frontal, STG, PCC and ACC; left superior  frontal, inferior temporal and precuneus; right parahippocampal, inferior parietal, lingual and  precentral cortices
29 Controls (23.2 ± 2.7)
• UHR vs controls: bilateral ACC and parahippocampal and medial frontal cortices; left STG;  right lingual, inferior frontal, parietal and middle temporal cortices
• Schizophrenia vs UHR: bilateral medial frontal cortex; left STG, superior frontal,  parahippocampal and inferior temporal cortices; right insula, uncus, PCC and precentral and  middle temporal cortices
Lyoo et al. (2006b) 25 Bipolar disorder (33.8 ± 9.6) • Bilateral postcentral cortex; left DLPFC, ACC, PCC, occipital cortex; right orbitofrontal, angular  and fusiform cortices
21 Controls (31.5 ± 9.7) • Bipolar I to bipolar II
Rimol et al. (2010, 2012) 173 Schizophrenia (32.3 ± 9.0) • Schizophrenia vs controls: bilateral lateral and medial frontal lobe, temporal lobe, precuneus,  parahippocampal and fusiform gyri, precentral gyrus, lateral and medial occipital lobe, lingual  gyrus; left ACC, STG, middle temporal gyrus, inferior parietal and lingual gyrus; right medial  orbitofrontal, entorhinal, supramarginal and inferior parietal cortices, isthmus of PCC
139 Bipolar disorder (35.4 ± 11.3)
207 Controls (36.2 ± 9.7)
• Bipolar vs controls, schizophrenia: no significant findings
• Bipolar I vs controls: bilateral lateral and medial frontal lobes; left orbitofrontal, posterior STG,  inferior parietal gyrus; right superior frontal gyrus, supramarginal, parietal, inferior temporal  and parahippocampal gyrus
• Bipolar I vs schizophrenia: no significant findings
Foland-Ross et al. (2011) 34 Bipolar I disorder (38.1 ± 12.0) • Bilateral prefrontal cortex; left ACC and dorsomedial, ventrolateral, frontopolar cortices
31 Controls (37.8 ± 13.1) • No difference between patients treated with or without lithium
  1. ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; DLPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; PCC, posterior cingulate cortex; STG, superior temporal gyrus; UHR, ultra-high risk.