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Table 3 Demographics and clinical scores (± standard deviation)

From: Cortical thinning in young psychosis and bipolar patients correlate with common neurocognitive deficits

  Psychosis (n = 40) Bipolar (n = 73) Controls (n = 49) Significance test (p)
Female, % (female/male) 27.5% (11/29) 71.2% (52/21) 57.1% (28/21) χ2 = 20.10 (<0.001)
Right handed, % (r/l/a) 85.0% (34/5/1) 80.8% (59/12/2) 83.7% (41/7/1) χ2 = 0.40 (0.982)
Age, years 23.5 ± 3.4 21.9 ± 3.6 24.2 ± 2.7 F = 7.31 (<0.001) bipolar < controls
Predicted IQ 101.9 ± 8.7 103.8 ± 7.9 104.9 ± 8.3 F = 1.31 (0.272)
Education, years 12.6 ± 2.5 12.8 ± 2.1 14.6 ± 2.1 F = 12.61 (<0.001) psychosis, bipolar < controls
Intracranial volume, cm3 1,557 ± 149 1,510 ± 127 1,532 ± 136 F = 1.57 (0.211)
Age of onset of illness, years 17.7 ± 4.3 14.9 ± 3.5 - t = −3.75 (<0.001)
Duration of illness, years 5.8 ± 3.5 7.1 ± 3.9 - t = 1.67 (0.097)
HDRS total 13.4 ± 6.8 12.4 ± 7.0 - t = −0.75 (0.453)
BPRS total 44.6 ± 9.9 41.2 ± 8.9 - t = −1.89 (0.062)
BPRS positive symptoms subscorea 13.8 ± 4.9 11.1 ± 3.6 - t = −3.05 (0.003)
BPRS negative symptoms subscore 8.8 ± 3.7 6.7 ± 2.3 - t = −3.14 (0.003)
BPRS depression subscorea 13.5 ± 4.4 14.2 ± 4.9 - t = 0.71 (0.481)
BPRS mania subscorea 9.9 ± 3.3 10.8 ± 4.7 - t = 1.16 (0.250)
BPRS disorientation subscorea 2.6 ± 1.2 2.2 ± 0.7 - t = −2.02 (0.049)
YMRS totala 3.8 ± 8.1 11.8 ± 16 - t = 3.66 (<0.001)
  1. Significant differences in gender and handedness were evaluated using a Pearson Chi-square test. Age, predicted IQ and years of education were evaluated with a one-way ANOVA with Games-Howell Post Hoc analysis. All other significance values were evaluated using independent samples t tests. Significance levels were set at p < 0.05. aEqual variance was not assumed. BPRS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; HDRS, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; YMRS, Young Mania Rating Scale.