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Table 3 Summary of findings for the FEM acute studies

From: Cognitive impairment in first-episode mania: a systematic review of the evidence in the acute and remission phases of the illness

Cognitive function Controls FEM Statistics Study
Domain Test Specific n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) p value Effect size First author (year)
Executive function Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Perseverative errors (%) 48 12.4 (10.7) 21 19.2 (12.2) 0.01a,b 0.59e Fleck et al. (2008)
Perseverative responses (n) 48 14.8 (18.9) 21 28.3 (22.6) 0.01a,b 0.65e
Non-perseverative errors (n) 48 13.1 (14.8) 21 19.5 (13.8) 0.001a,b 0.43e
Unique errors (n) 48 1.8 (5.3) 21 4.9 (8.6) 0.001a,b 0.47e
Failure to maintain set (n) 48 0.6 (0.9) 21 0.5 (1.0) 0.32a 0.13e
Stop signal design Targets, correct (%) 16 50 (12) 16 44 (20) 0.13c NR Strakowski et al. (2008)
Stops, correct (%) 16 89 (9) 16 91 (7) 0.25c NR
Discriminability 16 0.85 (0.04) 16 0.87 (0.06) 0.27c NR
Bias 16 0.14 (0.03) 16 0.11 (0.05) 0.17c NR
Target, RT (ms) 16 580 (10) 16 575 (36) 0.57c NR
Controlled Oral Word Association Test FAS 30 39.57 (11.07) 19 38.52 (10.95) >0.05d NR Lebowitz et al. (2001)
Animal category 30 19.71 (3.69) 19 18.43 (3.63) >0.05d NR
  1. n, number; RT, reaction time; ms, milliseconds; NR, not reported. aKruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests; bsignificant difference between groups after Mann-Whitney U test for pairwise comparisons; cone-sample t-tests; done-way or univariate analysis of variance; eCohen’s d.